Aug/Sept 18: Issue 137


1 World Gastroenterology Oganisation (2018). Global Guidelines [online]. Available at:,5498.1 [Accessed 14 Jun. 2018]
2 Manual of dietetic practice (fifth edition)
3 Lomer M and Stuart A (2014). Advanced nutrition and dietetics in gastroenterology. Chichester, England: Wiley Blackwell
4 Advanced nutrition and human metabolism, fifth edition
5 Beating Bowel Cancer (2018). Types of Bowel Surgery to Remove Tumours - Beating Bowel Cancer. [online] Available at: [Accessed 15 Jun. 2018]
6 Pancreatic Cancer UK (2018). Types of surgery. Pancreatic Cancer UK [online]. Available at: [Accessed 14 June 2018]
7 Andari Sawaya R, Jaffe J, Friedenberg L and K Friedenberg F (2012). Vitamin, Mineral, and Drug Absorption Following Bariatric Surgery. Current Drug Metabolism, 13(9), pp 1345-1355
8 Cren P et al (2004). Net digestive absorption and adaptive hyperphagia in adult small bowel patients. Gut; 53: 1279-1286
9 Woolf GM et al (1983). Diet for patient with a short bowel: high fat or high carbohydrate? Gastroenterology; 84(4): 823-828
10 Bakewell L (2017). Management of High Output Stoma. CN
11 Hollwarth ME. Short bowel syndrome: pathophysiological and clinical aspects. Pathophysiology. 1999; 6: 1-19/Matarese LE. Nutrition and fluid optimisation for patients with short bowel syndrome. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2013; 37: 161-170/Eusufzai S. Bile acid malabsorption: mechanisms and treatment. Dig Dis. 1995; 13: 312-321
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13 Imrie CW et al. Ailment Pharmacol Ther. 2010; 32 (Suppl 1): 1-25
14 Armstrong T, Walters E, Varshney S, Johnson CD. Deficiencies of micronutrients, altered bowel function and quality of life during late follow-up after pancreaticoduodenectomy for malignancy. Pancreatology. 2002; 2: 528-534
15 Schweiger C, Keidar A. Nutritional deficiencies in bariatric surgery patients: prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Harefuah. 2010; 149: 715-20. 748
16 Mallory GN, Macgregor AM. Folate status following gastric bypass surgery (the Great Folate Mystery). Obes Surg. 1991; 1: 690-72
17 Slater GH, Ren CJ, Seigel N et al. Serum fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and abnormal calcium metabolism after malabsorptive bariatric surgery. J Gastrointest Surg. 2004; 8: 48-55 [PubMed]
18 Newbury L, Dolan K, Hatzifotis M, Fielding G. Calcium and vitamin D depletion and elevated parathyroid hormone following bilio- pancreatic diversion. Obes Surg. 2003; 13: 893-5
19 Ruz M, Carrasco F, Rojas P, Codoceo J. Iron absorption and iron status are reduced after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 90: 527-532


1 Colombo C, Ellemunter H, Houwen R, Munck A, Taylor C, Wilschanski M. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of distal intestinal obstruction syndrome in cystic fibrosis patients. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 2011; 10 Suppl 2: S24-8
2 Interventions for preventing distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) in cystic fibrosis. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 6(5)·June 2018. Accessed 2nd July 2018
3 Rowbotham NJ, Smith S, Leighton PA, Rayner OC, Gathercole K, Elliott ZC et al. The top 10 research priorities in cystic fibrosis developed by a partnership between people with CF and healthcare providers. Thorax 2017; 73(4): 388-90
4 Chen J, Ou L, Hollis S. A systematic review of the impact of routine collection of patient reported outcome measures on patients, providers and health organisations in an oncologic setting. BMC Health Service Research 2013; 13:211
5 King SJ, Nyulasi IB, Strauss BJ, Kotsimbos T, Bailey M, Wilson JW. Fat-free mass depletion in cystic fibrosis: associated with lung disease severity but poorly detected by body mass index. Nutrition 2010; 26: 753
6 McNaughton SA, Shepherd RW, Greer RG, Cleghorn GJ, Thomas BJ. Nutritional status of children with cystic fibrosis measured by total body potassium as a marker of body cell mass: lack of sensitivity of anthropometric measures. J Pediatr 2000; 136: 188
7 Stapleton D, Kerr D, Gurrin L, Sherriff J, Sly P. Height and weight fail to detect early signs of malnutrition in children with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2001; 33: 319

Page 23 - SWEETENERS: FRIEND OR FOE? By Maeve Hanan

1 The British Dietetic Association (BDA 2016). Policy Statement the Use of Artificial Sweeteners. Available
2 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA 2011). Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to intense sweeteners and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight (ID 1136, 1444, 4299), reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 4298), maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations (ID 1221, 4298), and maintenance of tooth mineralisation by decreasing tooth demineralisation (ID 1134, 1167, 1283) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. Available at:
3 FSA. Additives or E numbers [accessed April 2018]
4 Mortensen et al (2006). Sweeteners permitted in the European Union: Safety aspects. Available via:
5 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Glossary [accessed April 2018 via:]
6 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Aspartame [accessed April 2018 via:]
7 Storey et al (2007). Gastrointestinal tolerance of erythritol and xylitol ingested in a liquid. Available at:
8 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA 2016). Safety of the proposed extension of use of acesulfame K (E950) in foods for special medical purposes in young children [accessed April 2018 via:]
9 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA 2016). Scientific Opinion on the safety of the extension of use of thaumatin (E957) [accessed April 2018 via:]
10 International Sweeteners Association. Aspartame-Acesulfame Salt Factsheet [accessed April 2018 via:]
11 International Sweeteners Association. Neotame Factsheet [accessed April 2018 via:]
12 Tandel (2011). Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics 2, 236-243
13 Just et al (2008). Cephalic phase insulin release in healthy humans after taste stimulation? Available at:
14 Teff et al (1995). Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men. Available at:
15 Pepino et al (2013). Sucralose affects glycaemic and hormonal responses to an oral glucose load. Available at:
16 Ma et al (2009). Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on gastric emptying and incretin hormone release in healthy subjects. Available at:
17 Diabetes UK. Sugar, sweeteners and diabetes [accessed April 2018 via:]
18 Yang (2010). Gain weight by “going diet?”: artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings. Available at:
19 Mattes and Popkin (2009). Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89, 1-14
20 Kanders et al (1988). An evaluation of the effect of aspartame on weight loss. Appetite. Available at:
21 Blackburn et al (1997). The effect of aspartame as part of a multidisciplinary weight-control program on short- and long-term control of body weight. Available at:
22 Rolls et al (1991). Effects of intense sweeteners on hunger, food intake and body weight: a review. Available at:
23 Azad et al (2017). Non-nutritive sweeteners and cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. Available at:
24 Piernas at al (2015). A dynamic panel model of the associations of sweetened beverage purchases with dietary quality and food purchasing patterns. American Journal of Epidemiology 181, 661-671
25 Gardner et al (2012). Nonnutritive sweeteners: current use and health perspectives: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association. Available at:
26 Suez et al (2014). Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. Available via:
27 Palmnas et al (2014). Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat. Available at:
28 Suez et al (2015). Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges. Available at:
29 Halmos and Suba (2016). Physiological patterns of intestinal microbiota. The role of dysbacteriosis in obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Available at:
30 Turnbaugh et al (2009). A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Available at:
31 Cancer Research UK. Food Controversies - Artificial Sweeteners [accessed April 2018 via:]
32 European Commission Directive (2008). Laying down specific purity criteria concerning sweeteners for use in foodstuffs. Available at:
33 Europa (2012). Summaries of EU legislation. Authorised sweeteners. Available at:
34 Food Standards Agency (2014). Food Additives Legislation Guidance to Compliance
35 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Sweeteners [accessed April 2018 via:]
36 Rother et al (2018). Pharmacokinetics of sucralose and acesulfame-potassium in breast milk following ingestion of diet soda. Available at:

Page 29 - FEEDING THE PRETERM INFANT by Martha Hughes

1 Santhakumaran S, Statnikov Y, Gray D, et al (2017). Survival of very preterm infants admitted to neonatal care in England 2008-2014: time trends and regional variation. Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition; doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2017-312748
2 McGuire W, Henderson G, Fowlie PW (2004). Feeding the preterm infant. BMJ 329: 1227
3 Saigal S, Doyle LW (2008). An overview of mortality and sequelae of preterm birth from infancy to adulthood. Lancet 371: 261-9
4 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Guideline scope: Parenteral nutrition in neonates. Available at:
5 UNICEF and WHO (2004). Low Birthweight: Country, Regional and Global Estimates. Available at:
6 Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH). Clinical Guidelines. Nutrition: enteral nutrition for the preterm infant. Available at:
7 Bertino E, Nicola PD, Giuliani F et al (2012). Benefits of human milk in preterm infant feeding. Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualised Medicine, 1(1): 19-24
8 Agostoni C, Buonocore G, Carnielli VP et al (2010). Enteral Nutrient Supply for Preterm Infants: Commentary From the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition. JPGN. 50: 85-91
9 Aggett PJ, Agostoni C, Axelsson I et al (2006). Feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. JPGN. 42(5): 596-603
10 Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. UK-WHO growth charts - neonatal and infant close monitoring (NICM). Available at:
11 Singhal A, Cole TJ, Fewtrell M et al (2004). Breast milk feeding and lipoprotein profile in adolescents born preterm follow-up of a prospective randomised study. Lancet. 363: 1571-1578
12 Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH). Clinical guidelines. Nutrition: parenteral. Available at:


1 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN): 'Feeding in the first year of life'. Available here:
2 Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (COT) (2016). Statement on the timing of introduction of allergenic foods to the infant diet and influence on the risk of development of atopic outcomes and autoimmune disease.
3 Assessing the health benefits and risks of the introduction of peanut and hen’s egg into the infant diet before six months of age in the UK. A Joint Statement from the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition and the Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in food, Consumer products and the Environment.
4 Preventing food allergy in higher risk infants: guidance for healthcare professionals. Available at: or
5 Preventing food allergy in your baby: information for parents. Available at: or
6 Du Toit G, Roberts G, Sayre PH, Bahnson HT, Radulovic S et al. Randomised trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy. N Engl J Med 2015; 372: 803-13
7 Perkin MJ, Logan K, Tseng A, Raji B. Ayis S et al. Randomised trial of introduction of allergenic foods in breastfed infants. N Engl J Med 2016; 374: 1733-43
8 Turner PJ, Campbell DE, Boyle RJ, Levin ME. Primary Prevention of Food Allergy: Translating evidence from clinical trials to population-based recommendations. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018 Mar-Apr; 6(2): 367-375
10 Ierodiakonou D, Garcia-Larsen V, Logan A, Groome A, Cunha S et al. Timing of allergenic food introduction to the infant diet and risk of allergic or autoimmune disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA 2016 Sep 20; 316(11): 1181-1192
11 Bellach J, Schwarz V, Ahrens B, Trendelenburg V, Aksünger Ö et al. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of hen’s egg consumption for primary prevention in infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 May;139(5): 1591-1599.e2
12 Garcia-Larsen V, Ierodiakonou D, Jarrold K, Cunha S, Chivinge J et al. Diet during pregnancy and infancy and risk of allergic or autoimmune disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med 2018 Feb; 15(2): e1002507
13 Boyle RJ, Ierodiakonou D, Khan T, Chivinge J, Robinson Z et al. Hydrolysed formula and risk of allergic or autoimmune disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2016; 352:i974

2 Mangweth-Matzek B et al (2006). Never too old for ED or body dissatisfaction: A community study of elderly women. International Journal of ED, 39, 583-586
3 Gagne D et al (2012). ED symptoms and weight and shape concerns in large web-based convenience sample of women aged 50 and above. International Journal of ED, 45: 832-844
4 Luca A et al (2015). Eating Disorders in Late-Life. Ageing and Disease, 6 (1) 48-55
5 Beat Statistics. Retrieved from:
6 Lapid et al (2010). Eating Disorders in the Elderly. International Psychogeriatric. 22 (4), 532-536

1 Rita Bailey, Maureen Angell. The ABCs of Dysphagia Management in Schools. The ASHA Leader, January 2008, Vol 13 8-11
3 Hormer, Emily (2016). Getting Started: Addressing Swallowing and Feeding in the School Setting (Plural Publications)
4 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2007). Guidelines for Speech-Language Pathologists Providing Swallowing and Feeding Services in Schools. Available from
5 Emma Cowpe, Ben Hanson, Christina Smith (2014). What do parents of children with dysphagia think about their MDT? A qualitative study. BMJ Open, 4:e005934
6 Jeri Logeman. Therapy for children with swallowing disorders in the educational setting, language, speech and hearing services in schools, Vol 31, 50-55, January 2000

2 Nathan Pelletier, Eric Audsley, Sonja Brodt, Tara Garnett, Patrik Henriksson, Alissa Kendall, Klaas Jan Kramer, David Murphy, Thomas Nemecek and Max Troell. Energy Intensity of Agriculture and Food Systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol 36: 223-246
3 Ingram JSI, Ericksen P, Liverman D eds (2010). Food Security and Global Environmental Change. London, UK: Earthscan
4 Godfray HCJ, Beddington JR, Crute IR, Haddad L, Lawrence D et al (2010). Food security: the challenge of feeding nine billion people. Science 327: 812-18
11 UK family spending patterns:
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17 Kahathuduwa C, Davis T, O'Boyle M, Boyd L, Chin S, Paniukov D and Binks M (2018). Effects of three-week total meal replacement vs typical food-based diet on human brain functional magnetic resonance imaging food-cue reactivity and functional connectivity in people with obesity. Appetite, 120, pp 431-441
18 Basulto J, Bultó L, Chamorro M, Lafuente C, Martín E, Porta G. Analysis of a weight loss program with meal replacement products on weight and biochemical markers in overweight or type I obese patients. Nutr Hosp. 2008 Jul-Aug; 23(4): 388-94. Spanish. PubMed PMID: 18604326
19 López Barrón G, Bacardí Gascón M, De Lira García C, Jiménez Cruz A. Meal replacement efficacy on long-term weight loss: a systematic review. Nutr Hosp. 2011 Nov-Dec; 26(6): 1260-5. doi: 10.1590/S0212-16112011000600011. Review. PubMed PMID: 22411370
20 Dyson PA, Twenefour D, Breen C, Duncan A, Elvin E, Goff L, Hill A, Kalsi P, Marsland N, McArdle P et al. Diabetes UK evidence-based nutrition guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes. Diabet Med. 2018 May; 35(5): 541-547; doi: 10.1111/dme.13603. PubMed PMID: 29443421

Page 48 - EATING EGGS DURING PREGNANCY by Cordelia Woodward
1 Foods Standards Agency (2018). New advice on eating runny eggs. Available online at: Accessed 04.04.2018
2 National Health Service (2018). The healthy way to eat eggs. Available online at: Accessed 04.04.2018
3 National Health Service (2018). Fats: the facts. Available online at: Accessed 23.03.2018
4 American Pregnancy Association (2018). Pregnancy Nutrition. Available online at: Accessed 27.03.2018
5 British Dietetic Association (2016). Pregnancy food facts. Available online at: Accessed 02.02.2018
6 Dietplan7, Forestfield software. Latest updated edition
7 Ruxton C (2017). Eggs are they nature’s multivitamin? British Lion Eggs Report:
8 Hubinont C (2017). Maternal and fetal benefits of DHA supplementation during pregnancy. J Pregnancy Reprod 1: DOI: 10.15761/JPR.1000103
9 Dietary reference values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report of the Panel on Dietary Reference Values of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. Rep Health Soc Subj (Lond) 1991; 41: 1-210
10 National Institute of Clinical Excellence (2014). Maternal and child nutrition. Available online at: Accessed 01.04.2018
11 Rayman MP and Bath SC (2015). Ann Clinc Biochem 53: 705-8
12 European Food Safety Authority (2014). NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies). Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for iodine. EFSA Journal 2014; 12(5): 3660, 57 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3660. Available online at
13 British Dietetic Association (2016). Iodine. Available online at: Accessed 23.03.2018
14 Mithal A and Kalra S (2014). Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 18(5), 593-596.
15 National Institute of Clinical Excellence (2017). Vitamin D: supplement use in specific population groups. Available online Accessed 05.04.2018
16 Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96: 1911-30
17 European Food Safety Authority (2016). Dietary reference values for choline. Available online Accessed 05.04.2018
18 Marsset-Baglieri A et al (2015). The satiating effects of eggs or cottage cheese are similar in healthy subjects despite differences in postprandial kinetics. Appetite 90: 136-143
19 National Diet and Nutrition Survey Results from Years 7 and 8 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2014/2015 to 2015/2016).
20 Finglas PM et al (2015). McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, Seventh summary edition. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry