February 2017: Issue 121

Page 10 – Cognitive behavioural therapy: promoting a positive change in eating behaviours

1. Westbrook, Kennerley and Kirk (2007). An Introduction to CBT, Skills and Applications

2. Judith Beck (2015). Psychotherapy Networker. Why CBT could be your best weight loss strategy

3. NICE guidelines (2004). Eating Disorders: Core interventions in the treatment and management of Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and related eating disorders

Page 14 – Paediatric diabetes: The journey of care from a dietetic perspective

1 Diabetes UK (2016) www.diabetes.org.uk/Professionals/Position-statements-reports/Statistics/Diabetes-prevalence-2016/ Accessed 16 December 2016

2 Diabetes UK (2015) https://www.diabetes.org.uk/Documents/Position%20statements/DiabetesUK_Facts_Stats_Oct16.pdf Accessed 16 December 2016

3 Diabetes UK (2016) www.diabetes.org.uk/Professionals/Position-statements-reports/Specialist-care-for-children-and-adults-and-complications/High-Quality-Care-for-Children-and-Young-People-with-Type-1-Diabetes-in-the-UK/ Accessed 16 December 2016

4 Diabetes UK (2016) www.diabetes.org.uk/Professionals/Position-statements-reports/Specialist-care-for-children-and-adults-and-complications/Paediatric-best-practice-tariff/ Accessed 16 December 2016

5 NICE guideline [NG18] Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) in children and young people: diagnosis and management. Published date: August 2015. Last updated: November 2016. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/NG18 Accessed 16 December 2016

6 World Health Organisation/International Diabetes Federation. Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycemia. Report of a WHO/IDF consultation. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43588/1/9241594934_eng.pdf World Health Organisation, 2006. Geneva, Switzerland

7 Diabetes.co.uk. What is HbA1c? (2016). www.diabetes.co.uk/what-is-hba1c.html

8 The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993; 329(14): 977-986

9 Trevor J Orchard MD, David M Nathan MD, Bernard Zinman MD, Patricia Cleary MS, David Brillon MD, Jye-Yu C Backlund MPH, John M Lachin ScD and The DCCT/EDIC Research Group. Association between seven years of intensive treatment of Type 1 diabetes and long-term mortality. JAMA. 2015 Jan 6; 313(1): 45-53. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.16107

10 Randell T. Paediatric Diabetes Best Practice Tariff Criteria. No date www.diabetes.org.uk/Documents/nhs-diabetes/paediatrics/Paediatric%20Diabetes%20Best%20Practice%20Tariff%20Criteria.pdf Accessed 15 December 2016

11 Gillespie SJ, Kulkarni KD, Daly AE. Using carbohydrate counting in diabetes clinical practice. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998 Aug;98(8): 897-905

12 NICE Guideline TA151. Diabetes - insulin pump therapy. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. 2008 www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ta151/resources/continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-82598309704645 accessed 18/12/16

Page 19 – Paediatric food allergy: a guide for the non-specialist dietitian

1 Prescott SL, Pawankar R, Allen KJ, Campbell DE, Sinn JK, Fiocchi A, et al. A global survey of changing patterns of food allergy burden in children

2 Chebar L, Meyer R, Anagnostou K, Dziubak R, Reeve K, Godwin H. Cows' milk protein allergy from diagnosis to management: the journey described by general practitioners versus patients. MDPI Child. 2015

3 Sladkevicius E, Nagy E, Lack G, Guest JF. Resource implications and budget impact of managing cows' milk allergy in the UK. J Med Econ. 2010; 13(1): 119-28

4 Department of Health. A review of services for allergy. 2006

5 Muraro A, Werfel T, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Roberts G, Beyer K, Bindslev-Jensen C et al. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: diagnosis and management of food allergy. Allergy. 2014; 69(8): 1008-25

6 Heyman MB. Lactose Intolerance in Infants, Children and Adolescents for the Committee on Nutrition

7 Skypala IJ, Williams M, Reeves L, Meyer R, Venter C. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence. Clin Transl Allergy. 2015; 5(1): 34

8 National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (institution). Food Allergy in under 19s: assessment and diagnosis. 2011

9 Skypala IJ, Venter C, Meyer R, deJong NW, Fox AT, Groetch M et al. The development of a standardised diet history tool to support the diagnosis of food allergy. Clin Transl Allergy. 2015; 5: 7

10 Perry TT, Matsui EC, Conover-Walker MK, Wood RA. Risk of oral food challenges. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004; 114(5): 1164-8

11 Sampson HA, Gerth Van Wijk R, Bindslev-Jensen C, Sicherer S, Teuber SS, Burks AW et al. Standardising double-blind, placebo-controlled oral food challenges: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology PRACTALL consensus report. 2012

12 Bindslev-Jensen C, Ballmer-Weber BK, Bengtsson U, Blanco C, Ebner C, Hourihane J et al. Standardisation of food challenges in patients with immediate reactions to foods - position paper from the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology. Allergy. 2004; 59: 690-7

13 Ives AJ, Hourihane JO. Evidence-based diagnosis of food allergy. Curr Paediatr. 2002; 12(5): 357-64

14 Meyer R, Lozinsky A. Advances in the dietary management of food allergy. Curr Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016; 29(2)

15 Bock SA. AAAAI support of the EAACI Position Paper on IgG4. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010; 125(6): 1410

16 Stapel S, Asero R, Ballmer-Weber BK, Know EF, Srobel S. Testing for IgG4 against foods not recommended as a diagnostic tool: EAACI Task Force Report. Allergy. 2008; 63: 793-6

17 Spergel JM, Brown-Whitehorn T. The use of patch testing in the diagnosis of food allergy. Vol 5, Current Allergy and Asthma Reports. 2005. p 86-90

18 Pothmann R, von Frankenberg S, Hoicke C, Weingarten H, Lüdtke R. Evaluation der klinisch angewandten Kinesiologie bei Nahrungsmittel-Unverträglichkeiten im Kindesalter. Complement Med Res. 2001; 8(6): 336-44

19 Teuber SS, Porch-Curren C. Unproved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to food allergy and intolerance. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003; 3(3): 217-21

20 Palmer DJ, Gold MS, Makrides M. Effect of cooked and raw egg consumption on ovalbumin content of human milk: A randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005; 35(2): 173-8

21 Franke AA, Halm BM, Custer LJ, Tatsumura Y, Hebshi S. Isoflavones in breastfed infants after mothers consume soy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84(2): 406-13

22 National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (institution). Atopic Eczema in Children. Online. 2007

23 Zeiger RS, Sampson HA, Bock SA, Burks AW, Harden K, Noone S et al. Soy allergy in infants and children with IgE-associated cows' milk allergy. J Pediatr. 1999; 134(5): 614-22

24 ARSENIC IN RICE DRINKS - https://www.food.gov.uk/science/research/surveillance/food-surveys/survey0209

25 Food Standards Agency. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic in rice drinks [Internet]. Available from: www.food.gov.uk

26 Meharg A, Deacon C, Campbell RCJ, Carey A-M, Williams PN, Feldmann J et al. Inorganic arsenic levels in rice milk exceed EU and US drinking water standards. J Environ Monit. 2008; 10(4): 428-31

27 Togias A, Cooper SF, Acebal ML, Assa A, Baker JR, Beck LA et al. Addendum guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergy in the United States: Report of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases sponsored expert panel. Ann Allergy, Asthma Immunol. 2016

28 Du Toit G, Roberts G, Sayre PH, Bahnson HT, Radulovic S, Santos AF et al. Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(9):803–13.

29 Perkin MR, Logan K, Tseng A, Raji B, Ayis S, Peacock J, et al. Randomised Trial of Introduction of Allergenic Foods in Breastfed Infants. N Engl J Med. 2016; 374(18): 1733-43

30 Food Allergy in Children Appendix 1 - https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg116/documents/food-allergy-in-children-and-young-people-guideline-consultation-full-guideline-appendix-12

31 Food allergen labelling. Food Standards Agency [Internet]. Food Standards Agency Website. 2014 [cited 2017 Jan 6]. Available from: www.food.gov.uk/science/allergy-intolerance/label

32 Leonard SA, Caubet JC, Kim JS, Groetch M, Nowak-Wegrzyn A. Baked milk- and egg-containing diet in the management of milk and egg allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015; 3(1): 13-23

33 Kim JS, Nowak-Wgrzyn A, Sicherer SH, Noone S, Moshier EL, Sampson HA. Dietary baked milk accelerates the resolution of cows' milk allergy in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011; 128(1): 125-31

34 Meyer R, De Koker C, Dziubak R, Venter C, Dominguez-Ortega G, Cutts R et al. Malnutrition in children with food allergies in the UK. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014 Jun; 27(3): 227-35

Page 27 – Goat milk across the age spectrum

1 Debski B et al (1987). Selenium content and distribution of human, cow and goat milk. J Nutr 117: 1091-7

2 Attaie R and Richter RL (2000). Size distribution of fat globules in goat milk. J Dairy Sci 83: 940-944

3 Zhou SJ et al (2014). Nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas for term infants: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr 111: 1641-1651

4 Jandal JM (1996). Comparative aspects of goat and sheep milk. Small Rumin Res 22: 177-185

5 Alférez MJ et al (2001). Digestive utilisation of goat and cow milk fat in malabsorption syndrome. J Dairy Res 68: 451-61

6 Almaas H et al (2006). In vitro digestion of bovine and caprine milk by human gastric and duodenal enzymes. Int Dairy J 16: 961-968

7 European Food Safety Authority (2004). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from the Commission relating to the evaluation of goats’ milk protein as a protein source for infant formulae and follow-on formulae. The EFSA Journal 30: 1-15

8 European Food Safety Authority (2012). Scientific Opinion on the suitability of goat milk protein as a source of protein in infant formulae and in follow-on formulae. www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/2603

9 Tripaldi C et al (1998). Content of taurine and other free amino acids in milk of goats bred in Italy. Small Rumin Res 30: 127-36

10 Grant C et al (2005). Randomised, double-blind comparison of growth in infants receiving goat milk formula versus cows’ milk infant formula. J Paediatr Child Health 41: 564-8

11 Prosser CG et al (2007). Composition of the non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and goat milk-based infant and follow-on formulae. Int J Food Sci Nutr 59: 123-133

12 Han Y et al (2011). Association of infant feeding practices in the general population with infant growth and stool characteristics. Nutr Res Pract 5: 308-312

13 Dairy Research and Information Centre. http://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat1.htm

14 Tomotake H et al (2006). Comparison between Holstein cows’ milk and Japanese-Saanen goat milk in fatty acid composition, lipid digestibility and protein profile. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70: 2771-2774

15 Restani P et al (1999). Cross-reactivity between milk proteins from different animal species. Clin Exp Allergy, 29: 997-1004

16 US National Library of Medicine (2006). Lactose intolerance. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000276.htm

17 Tavares B et al (2007). Goat’s milk allergy. Allergol Immunopathol 35: 113-6

18 Allergy UK (2015). www.allergyuk.org/milk-allergy/milk-allergy

19 US National Library of Medicine (2010). Lactose intolerance. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/lactose-intolerance#statistics

20 Carvalho EB et al (2012). Goat milk with and without increased concentrations of lysozyme improves repair of intestinal cell damage induced by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. BMC Gastroenterol 12: 106

21 Atanasova J and Ivanova I (2010). Antibacterial peptides from goat and sheep milk proteins, Biotechnol & Biotechnological Equip 24: 1799-1803

22 Almaas H et al (2011). Antibacterial peptides derived from caprine whey proteins, by digestion with human gastrointestinal juice. Br J Nutr 106: 896-905

23 BBC News. www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-34720345

24 Kiskini A and Difilippo E (2013). Oligosaccharides in goat milk: structure, health effects and isolation. Cell Mol Biol 59: 25-30

25 Jirillo F et al (2010). Ability of goat milk to modulate healthy human peripheral blood lymphomonocyte and polymorphonuclear cell function: in vitro effects and clinical implications. Curr Pharm Des 16: 870-6

26 Amati L et al (2010). Donkey and goat milk intake and modulation of the human aged immune response. Curr Pharm Des 16: 864-9

27 Jirillo F et al (2010). Donkey and goat milk consumption and benefits to human health with special reference to the inflammatory status. Curr Pharm Des 16: 859-63

Page 31 – Intermittent fasting diets

1 PEN (2015). Available via: www.pennutrition.com/KnowledgePathway.aspx?kpid=15329&pqcatid=146&pqid=8776

2 Davis et al (2015). Intermittent energy restriction and weight loss: a systematic review. www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v70/n3/full/ejcn2015195a.html

3 Clifton et al (2016). Weight-Loss Outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of intermittent energy restriction trials lasting a minimum of six months

4 Hankey et al (2015). A systematic review of the literature on intermittent fasting for weight management. www.fasebj.org/content/29/1_Supplement/117.4.short

5 Jiandani et al (2016). Predictors of early attrition and successful weight loss in patients attending an obesity management program. https://bmcobes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40608-016-0098-0

6 Siervo et al (2010). Use of the cellular model of body composition to describe changes in body water compartments after total fasting, very low calorie diet and low calorie diet in obese men. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2014 2822

7 Lettieri-Barbato et al (2016). Effects of dietary restriction on adipose mass and biomarkers of healthy aging in human. www.aging-us.com/article/YmhYbE6ipoL6ykpfz/text

8 Mattson et al (2016). Impact of intermittent fasting on health and disease processes. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27810402

9 Horne et al (2015). Health effects of intermittent fasting: hormesis or harm? A systematic review www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26135345

10 PEN (2015). Available via: www.pennutrition.com/KnowledgePathway.aspx?kpid=15329&pqcatid=146&pqid=8778

11 PEN (2015). Available via: www.pennutrition.com/KnowledgePathway.aspx?kpid=15329&pqcatid=146&pqid=8780

12 PEN (2015). Available via: www.pennutrition.com/KnowledgePathway.aspx?kpid=15329&pqcatid=146&pqid=8655

13 Farshchi et al (2005). Deleterious effects of omitting breakfast on insulin sensitivity and fasting lipid profiles in healthy lean women. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1569 9226

14 PEN (2015). Available via: www.pennutrition.com/KnowledgePathway.aspx?kpid=2878&pqcatid=146&pqid=8782

15 Hong et al (1987). The induction of a specific form of cytochrome P-450 (P-450j) by fasting. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3827 895

16 Fry et al (1999). Depression of glutathione content, elevation of CYP2E1-dependent activation, and the principal determinant of the fasting-mediated enhancement of 1,3- dichloro-2-propanol hepatotoxicity in the rat. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1041 8953

17 PEN (2013). Is Fasting Healthy? www.pennutrition.com/docviewer.aspx?id=10895

Page 34 – Bariatric surgery, nutrition and the challenges of long-term follow-up within the NHS

1 Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet 2016 [Internet], London: HSCIC. Available from http://content.digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PUB20562/obes-phys-acti-diet-eng-2016-rep.pdf (accessed 17th December 2016)

2 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guideline 189 Obesity: identification, assessment and management of overweight and obesity in children, young people and adults 2014 [Internet], London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Available from: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg189 (accessed 17th December 2016)

3 Welbourn R, Small P, Finlay I et al. National Bariatric Surgery Registry: Second registry report 2014. ISBN 978-0-9568154-8-4. Oxfordshire: Dendrite Clinical Systems Ltd

4 By-band Sleeve trial. National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 09/127/53). www.by-band-sleeve.bristol.ac.uk/home/ [Internet], Bristol: National Institute for Health Research (accessed 17th December 2016)

5 Mechanick JI, Youdim A, Jones DB et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the perioperative nutritional, metabolic and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient - 2013 update: Co-sponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologist, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2013; 9(2): 159-191

6 Homan J, Betzel B, Aarts EO et al. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies after biliopancreatic diversion and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch - the rule rather than the exception. Obes Surg 2015; 25(9): 1626-32

7 Welbourn R, Dixon J, Barth JH, Finer N, Hughes CA, le Roux CW, Wass J. NICE-Accredited Commissioning Guidance for Weight Assessment and Management Clinics: a Model for a Specialist Multidisciplinary Team Approach for People with Severe Obesity. Obes Surg 2016; 26: 649-659

8 O’Kane M, Parretti HM, Hughes CA, Sharma M, Woodcock S, Puplampu T, Blakemore AI, Clare K, MacMillan I, Joyce J, Sethi S and Barth JH. Guidelines for the follow-up of patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Clinical Obesity 2016; 6:2010-224. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/cob.12145/abstract and http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1111/cob.12145/asset/supinfo/cob12145-sup-0001-AppendixS1-S3.pdf?v=1&s=f327e73b582e90f9d790eba4c2d8beefca5734af (accessed 17th December 2016)

9 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Quality Standard 127 Obesity: clinical assessment and management 2016 [Internet], London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Available from: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs127 (accessed 17th December 2016)

10 National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death. Too Lean a Service? A review of the care of patients who underwent bariatric surgery. London: Dave Terrey; 2012

11 O’Kane M, Pinkney J, Aasheim ET et al. BOMSS guidelines on peri-operative and postoperative biochemical monitoring and micronutrient replacement for patients undergoing bariatric surgery adults 2014 [Internet], London: BOMSS. Available from: www.bomss.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/BOMSS-guidelines-Final-version1Oct14.pdf (accessed 17th December 2016)

12 O’Kane M, Pinkney J, Aasheim ET et al. BOMSS GP Guidance: Management of nutrition following bariatric surgery 2014 [Internet], London: BOMSS. Available from: www.bomss.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/GP_Guidance-Final-version-1Oct141.pdf (accessed 17th December 2016)

13 Parretti HM, Hughes CA, O’Kane M et al. Royal College of General Practitioners top ten tips for post-bariatric surgery patients in primary care. London: RCGP. Available from: www.rcgp.org.uk/clinical-and-research/clinical-resources/nutrition/~/media/Files/CIRC/Nutrition/Obesity/RCGP-Top-ten-tips-for-post-bariatric-surgery-patients-in-primary-care-Nov-2014.ashx (accessed 17th December 2016)

Page 37 – Bariatric case study

1 Colquitt JL, Picot J, Loveman E et al (2009). Surgery for obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 2

2 NICE (2014). National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Obesity: identification, assessment and management. CG189. November 2014. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg189/chapter/1-recommendations#surgical-interventions (Accessed June 2016)

3 National Obesity Observatory (NOO). Bariatric Surgery for Obesity. August 2010. www.noo.org.uk/uploads/doc/vid_8774_NOO%20Bariatric%20Surgery%20for%20Obesity%20FINAL%20MG%20011210.pdf (Accessed June 2016)

4 Jolly K, Lewis A, Beach J, Denley J, Deeks J, Daley A, Aveyard P. Comparison of range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity: Lighten Up randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2011: 343;d6500

5 Jebb SA, Ahern AL, Olson A, Aston LM, Holzapfel C, Stoll J, Amann-Gassner U, Simpson AE, Fuller NR, Pearson S, Lau NS, Mander AP, Hauner H, Caterson ID. Primary care referral to a commercial provider for weight loss treatment versus standard care: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet 2011; 2011: 378 p 1485-1492

6 Lean M, Brosnahan N, McLoone P, McCombie L, Bell-Higgs A, Ross H, Mackenzie M, Grieve E, Finer N, Reckless J, Haslam D, Sloan B, Morrison D. Feasibility and indicative results from a 12-month low energy liquid diet treatment and maintenance programme for severe obesity. British Journal of General Practice 2013

7 Nguyen D et al. Outcomes of revisional treatment Modalities in uncomplicated Roux en Y Gastric Bypass Patients with Weight Regain. Obesity Surgery; 25(5): 928-934

8 Sjostrom L, Lindroos AK, Peltonen M, Torgerson J, Bouchard C, Carlsson B, Dahlgren S, Larsson B, Narbro K, Sjostrom CD, Sulllivan M, Wedel H; Swedish Obese Subjects Study Scientific Group (2004). Lifestyle, diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors 10 years after bariatric surgery. N Engl J Med 351: 2683-2693

9 Almogy G, Crookes PF, Anthone GJ. Longitudinal gastrectomy as a treatment for the high risk super obese patients. Obes Surg 2004; 14: 492-7