July 17: Issue 126

Page 13 - Improving gut health in children through diet

1 Jason Lloyd-Price, Galeb Abu-Ali and Curtis Huttenhower. The healthy human microbiome. Genome Medicine (2016) 8:51 DOI 10.1186/s13073-016-0307-y

2 De Filippis F, Pellegrini N, Vannini L, et al. High-level adherence to a Mediterranean diet beneficially impacts the gut microbiota and associated metabolome. Gut 2016;65:1812-1821

3 Blaut M. Relationship of prebiotics and food to intestinal microflora. EurJNutr41 [Suppl1] (2002):I/11–I/16. DOI 10.1007/s00394-002-1102-7

4 Cummings JH, Macfarlane GT and Englyst HN. Prebiotic digestion and fermentation. February 2001, vol 73, no 2, 415s-420s

5 Tilg H and Kaser A. Gut microbiome, obesity, and metabolic dysfunction. J Clin Invest. 2011;121(6) :2126-2132. doi:10.1172/JCI58109

6 Chassaing B et al. Dietary emulsifiers impact the mouse gut microbiota promoting colitis and metabolic syndrome. Nature. 2015 Mar 5; 519 (7541): 92-96. doi:10.1038/nature14232

7 Brian S Alper, Monica Zangwill, James LaRue, Eric W. Manheimer (2017). Evidence for clinical practice - Do probiotics reduce the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) in children taking antibiotics? European Journal of Integrative Medicine Volume 12, June 2017, Pages 129-130

Page 16 - Fermented foods, IBS and the microbiome

1 PEN Nutrition: Gastrointestinal System - Microbiota

2 Ho JT et al (2015). Systemic effects of gut microbiota and its relationship with disease and modulation. BMC Immunol 16:21

3 Kate Scarlata http://blog.katescarlata.com/2014/10/27/probiotics/

4 Kim D et al (2016). Gut microbiota in autoimmunity: potential for clinical applications. Arch Pharm Res. 39(11): 1565-1576

5 Sanders ME et al (2013). An update on the use and investigation of probiotics in health and disease. Gut. 62(5): 787-96

6 Hungin APS et al (2013). Systematic review: probiotics in the management of lower gastrointestinal symptoms in clinical practice - an evidence-based international guide. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 38(8): 864-886

7 World Gastroenterology Organisation Global Guidelines: Probiotics and Prebiotics. February 2017. www.worldgastroenterology.org/guidelines/global-guidelines/probiotics-and-prebiotics/probiotics-and-prebiotics-english

8 Cani PD et al (2007). Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetes. 56:1761-72

9 Den Besten G et al (2013). The role of short chain fatty acids in the interplay between diet, gut microbiota and host energy metabolism. J Lipid Res. 54:2325-40

10 FAO/WHO Working Group. London, Ontario, Canada (2002). Guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in food. Report of a joint FAO/WHO working group on drafting guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in food. Available at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/es/esn/food/wgreport2.pdf

Page 21 - Childhood Obesity

1 World Health Organisation (2016). Report of the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity (available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204176/1/9789241510066_eng.pdf)

2 Health and Social Care Information Centre (2015). Health Survey for England 2014

3 HM government (2016). Childhood Obesity - A Plan for Action (available at: www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/546588/Childhood_obesity_2016__2__acc.pdf)

4 Public Health England (2017). Health risks of childhood obesity (available at: www.noo.org.uk/NOO_about_obesity/obesity_and_health/health_risk_child)

5 Childhood Obesity Foundation. What are the Complications of Childhood Obesity? (available at: http://childhoodobesityfoundation.ca/what-is-childhood-obesity/complications-childhood-obesity/)

6 Diabetes UK (2012). Key Statistics on Diabetes

7 Richardson et al (2012). Timing and duration of obesity in relation to diabetes: findings from an ethnically diverse, nationally representative sample

8 Li et al (2009). Prevalence of pre-diabetes and its association with clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors and hyperinsulinemia among US adolescents

9 Haines et al (2007). Rising incidence of Type 2 diabetes in children in the UK

10 Egan et al (2013). Childhood body mass index and subsequent physician-diagnosed asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

11 Rzehak et al (2013). Body mass index trajectory classes and incident asthma in childhood: results from eight European birth cohorts

12 Black et al (2013). Increased asthma risk and asthma-related healthcare complications associated with childhood obesity

13 Kang et al (2012). Body weight status and obstructive sleep apnea in children

14 Cote et al (2013). Childhood Obesity and Cardiovascular Dysfunction

15 Freedman et al (2007). Cardiovascular risk factors and excess adiposity among overweight children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study

16 Van Emmerik et al (2012). High cardiovascular risk in severely obese young children and adolescents

17 Watson et al (2013). Adult hypertension risk is more than quadrupled in obese children

18 Griffiths et al (2010). Self-esteem and quality of life in obese children and adolescents: a systematic review

19 Gatineau et al (2011). Is obesity associated with emotional and behavioural problems in children?

20 Pischon et al (2008). General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe

Page 25 – Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) to prescribe or not to prescribe?

1 NHS England Guidance on Commissioning Excellent Nutrition and Hydration 2015-2018. www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/nut-hyd-guid.pdf

2 Stratton RJ, Green C and Elia M (2003). Disease related malnutrition; an evidence-based approach to treatment. Oxford: CABI Publishing

3 EU Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/128 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 609/2013

4 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Nutrition support in adults: oral nutrition support, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition. Clinical Guideline 32. 2006 www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg32

5 NICE Quality Standard [QS24] Nutrition support for adults. National Institute of Clinical Excellence, 2012

6 Managing Adult Malnutrition in the Community. Including a pathway for the appropriate use of oral nutritional supplements (ONS). The Malnutrition Pathway produced by a multi-professional consensus panel, May 2012. http://malnutritionpathway.co.uk/downloads/Managing_Malnutrition.pdf

7 Elia M (2015). The cost of malnutrition in England and potential cost savings from nutritional interventions. BAPEN and National Institute for Health Research (NIHRN). www.bapen.org.uk/pdfs/economic-report-short.pdf last accessed: 22 May, 2017

8 Elia M, Normand C, Norman K and Laviano A (2016) A systematic review of the cost and cost effectiveness of using standard oral nutritional supplements in the hospital setting. Clinical Nutrition 35:370-380

9 Elia M, Normand C, Norman K and Laviano A (2016). A systematic review of the cost and cost effectiveness of using standard oral nutritional supplements in community and care home settings. Clinical Nutrition 35:125-137

10 Wilma L and Hankey C (2015). Aging, Nutritional Status and Health. Healthcare 3:648-658

11 Margetts BM, Thompson RL, Elia M and Jackson AA (2003). Prevalence of risk of undernutrition is associated with poor health status in older people in the UK. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 57, 69-74

12 Kenkmann A, Price GM, Bolton J and Hooper L (2010). Health, wellbeing and nutritional status of older people living in UK care homes: An exploratory evaluation of changes in food and drink provision. BMC Geriatr. 10:28

Page 29 - Plant sterols and stanols: an overview

1 Helena Gylling and Piia Simonen (2016). Are plant sterols and plant stanols a viable future treatment for dyslipidemia? Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, 14(5): 549-551

2 Ras RT, Geleijnse JM, Trautwein EA (2014). LDL-Cholesterol- lowering effect of plant sterols and stanols across different dose ranges: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies. British Journal of Nutrition: 112, 214-219

3 Cofán M and Ros E (2015). Clinical Application of Plant Sterol and Stanol Products. Journal of AOAC International: 98, 3 701-706

4 Han S, Jiao J, Xu J, Zimmermann D, Actis-Goretta L, Guan L, Zha Y, Qin L (2016). Effects of Plant Stanol or Sterol enriched diets on Lipid Profiles in patients treated with statins: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. www.nature.com/scientific reports 6, 31337 1-9

5 BDA food fact sheet (2015). Stanols and Sterols. www.bda.uk.com/foodfacts/home last cited 20/05/2017

6 Eussen SR, Rompelberg CJ, Klungel OH and van Eijkeren JC (2011). Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans. Lipids. Health. Dis 10, 187

7 Gylling HPJ, Turley S et al (2014). Plant sterols and plant stanols in the management of dislipidaemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease Atherosclerosis. 232:346-60

8 Commission Regulation (EU) (2014) No 686/2014 of 20 June 2014 amending Regulations (EC) No 983/2009 and (EU) No 384/2010 as regards the conditions of use of certain health claims related to the lowering effect of plant sterols and plant stanols on blood LDL-cholesterol. Journal of the European Union [online] Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1424856119984&uri=CELEX:32014R0686 [Accessed 20 May 2017]

9 Amir Shaghaghi M, Abumweis SS, Jones PJ (2013). Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant sterols/stanols provided in capsule and tablet formats: results of a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Acad Nutr Diet. Nov; 113(11): 1494-503

10 AbuMweis SS, Vanstone CA, Lichtenstein AH et al; Plant sterol consumption frequency affects plasma lipid levels and cholesterol. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun 63(6): 747-55. Epub 2008 Jun 4

11 AbuMweis SS, Barake R, Jones PJH (2008). Plant sterols/stanols as cholesterol lowering agents: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Food and Nutrition Research DOI IO.3402/fnr. v52iO.1811

12 Baumgartmer S, Ras TR, Trautwein EA, Mensinki RP, Plat J (2017). Plasma fat soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations after plant sterol and plant stanol consumption: a meta analysis of randomised controlled trials, Eur J Nutr 56, 909-923

13 Laitinen K, Isolauri E, Kaipiainen L, Gylling H, Miettinen TA (2009). Plant stanol ester spreads as components of a balanced diet for pregnant and breastfeeding women: evaluation of clinical safety. Br J Nutr, 101(12): 1797-804

14 NICE (2014) updated 2016. Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction, including lipid modification

15 Plat J Hendrikx T, Bieghs V et al. (2014) Protective role of plant sterol and stanol esters in liver inflammation: insights from mice and humans. Plos ONE. 9, 10

16 https://heartuk.org.uk/cholesterol-and-diet/six-super-foods-for-lower-cholesterol/portfolio-diet (last cited on 23/05/2017)

Page 33 - Cystic Fibrosis: nutritional strategies and management

1 Yen EH, Quinton H and Borowitz D. Better nutritional status in early childhood is associated with improved clinical outcomes and survival in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr. 2013; 162: 530-535

2 Konstan MW, Butler SM, Wohl ME et al. Growth and nutritional indexes in early life predict pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr. 2003; 142: 624-630

3 Steinkamp G and Wiedemann B. Relationship between nutritional status and lung function in cystic fibrosis: Cross sectional and longitudinal analyses from the German CF quality assurance (CFQA) project. Thorax. 2002; 57: 596-601

4 Borowitz D. The interrelationship of nutrition and pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med.1996 Nov; 457-461

5 Slieker MG, Uiterwaal CS, Sinaasappel M, Heijerman HG, van der Laag J and van der Ent CK. Birth prevalence and survival in cystic fibrosis: a national cohort study in the Netherlands. Chest. Oct 2005;128: 2309-2315

6 Corey M, McLaughlin FJ, Williams M and Levison H. A comparison of survival, growth, and pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis in Boston and Toronto. J Clin Epidemiol.1988; 41: 583-591

7 Dodge JA and Turck D. Cystic fibrosis: nutritional consequences and management. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2006; 20: 531-5468

8 Turck D et al. ESPEN-ESPGHAN-ECFS guidelines on nutrition care for infants, children and adults with cystic fibrosis, Clinical Nutrition (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2016.03.004

9 Stallings VA, Stark LJ, Robinson KA, Feranchak AP, Quinton H. Evidence-based practice recommendations for nutrition-related management of children and adults with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency: results of a systematic review. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; 108(5): 832-9

10 Pedreira CC, Robert RGD, Dalton V, Oliver MR, Carlin JB, Robinson P et al. Association of body composition and lung function in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2005; 39(3): 276-80

11 Hollander FM, De Roos NM, De Vries JHM, Van Berkhout FT. Assessment of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis: Whole-body bio-impedance vs body mass index, skinfolds, and leg-to-leg bio-impedance. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005; 105(4): 549-55.

12 Engelen MP, Schroder R, Van der Hoorn K, Deutz NE, Com G. Use of body mass index percentile to identify fat-free mass depletion in children with cystic fibrosis. Clin Nutr. 2012; 31(6): 927-33

13 Borowitz D, Baker RD, Stallings V. Consensus report on nutrition for patients with CF. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2002; 35(3): 246-259

14 Wiedemann B, Paul KD, Stern M, Wagner TO, Hirche TO. Evaluation of body mass index percentiles for assessment of malnutrition in children with cystic fibrosis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007; 61(6): 759-68

15 Zhang Z, Lai HJ. Comparison of the use of body mass index percentiles and percentage of ideal body weight to screen for malnutrition in children with cystic fibrosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80(4): 982-91

16 Lai HJ. Classification of nutritional status in cystic fibrosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2006; 12(6): 422-7

17 Konstan MW, Pasta DJ, Wagner JS, Van Devanter DR, Morgan WJ. J Cyst Fibros. 2007. Jan: (1691): 158-160.doi:1016/j.jcf.2016.1.005. BMI fails to identify poor nutritional status in stunted children with CF

18 Souza dos Santos Simon MI, Forte GC, da Silva Pereira J, da Fonseca Andrade Procianoy E, Drehmer M. Validation of a Nutritional Screening Tool for Paediatric patients with CF. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Vol 116, no 5. 2016

19 Vered ED, Babich T, Singer P, Leibovici L. Quality of reporting nutritional randomised controlled trials in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. August 2016; 63. Issue 2, p 265-269. (/jpgn/toc/2016/08000)

20 Best C, Brearley A, Gaillard P et al. A pre-post retrospective study of patients with cystic fibrosis and gastrostomy tubes. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011; 53: 453-458

21 Bradley GM, Carson KA, Leonard AR et al. Nutritional outcomes following gastrostomy in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2012; 47: 743-748

22 Conway S, Morton A and Wolfe S. Enteral tube feeding for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012; 12: CD001198

23 Nutritional intervention in patients with cystic fibrosis: A systematic review. Journal of cystic fibrosis: official journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Societ.03/2013; 12(2):102-115. DOI:10.1016/j.jcf.2012.11.005

24 Schwarzenberg SJ et al. Enteral tube feeding for individuals with cystic fibrosis: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation evidence-informed guidelines. J Cyst Fibro:15 (2016) 724-735

Page 37 - The dietetic virtual clinic: implementing a hospital service

1 Myers EF, Spence LA, Leslie B, Brauer PM, Spahn JM and Snetselaar L (2010). Telehealth and obesity perspective, Nutrition and Telephone Counselling, Future Implications for Dietitians and Teledietetics, Top Clinical Nutrition, Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010, Vol 25, No 2, pp 88-108

2 Saqui O, Chang A, McGonigle S, Purdy B, Fairholm L, Baun M, Yeung M, Rossos P and Allard J. Telehealth Videoconferencing: Improving Home Parenteral Nutrition, JPEN, Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition; May/Jun 2007; 31, 3; ProQuest Hospital Collection, pg 234-239

3 Flodgren G, Rachas A, Farmer AJ, Inzitari M, Shepperd S. Interactive telemedicine: effects on professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 9. Art No: CD002098. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002098.pub2 www.cochrane.org/CD002098/EPOC_interactive-telemedicine-effects-professional-practice-and-healthcare-outcomes

4 Office for national statistics, Internet access - households and individuals (2014). Use of the internet by adults in Great Britain including mobile access, activities, shopping, security and storage. 07/08/2014

Page 41 - Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder AFRID

1 Fisher MM et al (2014). Characteristics of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in children and adolescents: A ‘new disorder’ in DSM-5. J Adolesc Health; Vol 55 (1): 49-52

2 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/dsm

3 Norris ML et al (2014). Exploring avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in eating disordered patients: a descriptive study. Int J Eat Disord; 45 (5): 495-9

4 Strandjord SE et al (2015). Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: illness and hospital course in patients hospitalised for nutritional insufficiency. J Adolesc Health; 57 (6): 673-8

5 What is ARFID? The Centre for Eating Disorders Blog. http://eatingdisorder.org/blog/2013/08/what-is-arfid/

6 Schreck KA, Williams K, Smith AF (2004). A comparison of eating behaviours between children with and without autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2004. Aug; 34 (4): 433-8

Page 44 – Vitamin D no longer just the sunshine vitamin

1 Lanham-New SA and Wilson LR (2016). Vitamin D - has the new dawn for dietary recommendations arrived? J Hum Nutr Diet, 29: 3-6

2 Weir RR, Carson EL, Mulhern MS, Laird E, Healy M and Pourshahidi LK (2016). Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to determine vitamin D intakes using the method of triads. J Hum Nutr Diet. 29, 255-261

3 Cribb VL, Northstone K, Hopkins D, Emmett PM (2015). Sources of vitamin D and calcium in the diets of preschool children in the UK and the theoretical effect of food fortification. J Hum Nutr Diet. 28, 583-592

4 Léger-Guist'hau J, Domingues-Faria C, Miolanne M, Peyrol F, Gerbaud L, Perreira B, Minet-Quinard R, Sapin V, Walrand S and Boirie Y (2017). Low socio-economic status is a newly identified independent risk factor for poor vitamin D status in severely obese adults. J Hum Nutr Diet. doi: 10.1111/jhn.12405

5 Rosendahl-Riise H, Spielau U, Ranhoff AH, Gudbrandsen OA, Dierkes J (2017). Vitamin D supplementation and its influence on muscle strength and mobility in community-dwelling older persons: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hum Nutr Diet. 30, 3-15

6 Samimi M, Kashi M, Foroozanfard F, Karamali M, Bahmani F, Asemi Z, Hamidian Y, Talari HR and Esmaillzadeh A (2016). The effects of vitamin D plus calcium supplementation on metabolic profiles, biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia. J Hum Nutr Diet. 29, 505-515

7 Vitamin D - has the new dawn for dietary recommendations arrived? http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-277X/homepage/new__2015_vitamin_d_virtual_issue.htm