July 18: Issue 136

Page 11 - NUTRITION AND BONE HEALTH by Leona Courtney
1 Knoke JD and Barrett-Connor E (2003). Weight loss: a determinant of hip bone loss in older men and women. The Rancho Bernardo Study, Am J Epidemiol, 15, 158(12): 1132-8
2 Finklestein J et al (2008). Bone Mineral Density Changes during the Menopause Transition in a Multiethnic Cohort of Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 93(3) 861-8
3 Ström O et al (2011). Osteoporosis: Burden, healthcare provision and opportunities in the EU: A report prepared in collaboration with the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industry Associations (EFPIA). Arch. Osteoporos. 6, 59-155
4 Prentice A (2004). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of osteoporosis, Public Health Nutrition, 7(1A), 227-43
5 Welten DC et al (1995). A meta-analysis of the effect of calcium intake on bone mass in young and middle aged females and males. J Nutr, 125:2802-12
6 Department of Health, Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. HMSO, 1991
7 Siegenberg D et al (1991). Ascorbic acid prevents the dose-dependent inhibitory effects of polyphenols and phytates on nonheme-iron absorption. Am J Clin Nutr, 53(2), 537-41
8 Committee to review dietary reference intakes for vitamin D and calcium. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (2010). Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academy Press
9 Holick (2005). J Nutr 135 (11), 2739S-48S
10 Public Health England and Food Standards Agency (Revised 2017). The National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Results from years 1-4 (combined) from the rolling programme (2008/09 - 2011/12)
11 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2016). Vitamin D and Health Report, available at: www.gov.uk/government/groups/scientific-advisory-committee-on-nutrition
12 Heaney RP and Rafferty K (2001). Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion. Amer J Clin Nutr 74:343-7
13 Campos-Obando N et al (2017). Serum Phosphate is associated with fracture risk: The Rotterdam Study and MrOS. J Bone and Mineral Research, 32(6): 1182-93
14 Rude RK et al (2009). Skeletal and hormonal effects of magnesium deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr, 28:131-41
15 New SA et al (2000). Dietary influences on bone mass and bone metabolism: further evidence of a positive link between fruit and vegetable intake and bone health. Am J Clin Nutr, 71:142-51
16 Heaney RP and Layman DK (2008). Amount and type of protein influences bone health. Am J Clin Nutr. 87(5):1567S-70
17 Hannan MT et al (2000). Effect of dietary protein on bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res, 15(12): 2504-12
18 Sahni S et al (2014). Association of total protein intake with bone mineral density and bone loss in men and women from the Framingham Offspring Study. Public Health Nutr. 17(11): 2570-6
19 McLean RR et al (2004). Homocysteine as a predictive factor for hip fracture in older persons. N Engl J Med. 350(20):2042–9.
20 Sahni S & Kiel DP (2015) Smoking, alcohol and bone health. In: Holick MF, Nieves JW, editors. Nutrition and Bone Health. 2nd edn. New York© Springer New York; 30: 489-504
21 Kanis JA et al (2005). Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporosis Int.16: 155-62
22 Whisner CM and Castillo LF (2018). Prebiotics, Bone and Mineral Metabolism. Calcif Tissues Int. 102(4): 43-79
23 van den Heuvel E et al (2000). Trans-galacto-oligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption in postmenopausal women. J Nutr 130: 2938-2942
24 Welch A et al (2017). Dietary Magnesium May Be Protective for Aging of Bone and Skeletal Muscle in Middle and Younger Older Age Men and Women: Cross-Sectional, Findings from the UK Biobank Cohort. Nutrients, 9, 1189
25 Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Qiao N, Jacques PF, Selhub J, Cupples LA, et al. Low Plasma Vitamin B(12) is associated with lower BMD: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2005; 20(1): 152-8
26 van Wijngaarden JP et al (2014). Effect of daily vitamin B-12 and folic acid supplementation on fracture incidence in elderly individuals with an elevated plasma homocysteine concentration: B-PROOF, a randomised controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 100(6): 1578-86
27 Gommans J et al (2013). The effect of homocysteine-lowering with B-vitamins on osteoporotic fractures in patients with cerebrovascular disease: sub-study of VITATOPS, a randomised placebo-controlled trial. BMC Geriatr. 2013; 13:88

Page 19 - VITAMIN D IN THE UK: AN OVERVIEW by Emma Berry
1 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. Vitamin D and Health (2016). Available at: www.gov.uk/government/publications/sacn-vitamin-d-and-health-report. Accessed 5th June 2018
2 Webb AR, Kazantzidis A, Kift RC, Farrar MD, Wilkinson J and Rhodes LE. Meeting vitamin D requirements in white Caucasians at UK latitudes: providing a choice. Nutrients (2018). 10(4): doi:10.3390/nu10040497
3 Kent Online. Rising number of Vitamin D deficiency cases in Kent. 2018. Available at: www.kentonline.co.uk/kent/news/lack-of-sun-making-us-ill-183558/. Accessed 5th June 2018
4 Daily Express. Vitamin D deficiency - what foods could boost your ‘sunshine’ vitamin intake? 2018. Available at: https://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/969044/vitamin-d-deficiency-symptoms-foods-diet-fish-egg. Accessed 13th June 2018
5 Forbes. Study links vitamin D deficiency to more fat around the waistline (2018). Available at: www.forbes.com/sites/daviddisalvo/2018/05/23/study-links-vitamin-d-deficiency-to-obesity-but-questions-remain/#1e8b4ec12a86. Accessed 6th June 2018
6 Rafiq R, Walschot F, Lips P, Lamb H, de Roos A, Rosendaal F, den Heijer M, de Jongh R and de Mutsert R. Associations of different body fat deposits with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Endocrine Abstracts (2018). Available at: www.endocrine-abstracts.org/ea/0056/ea0056OC6.5.htm. Accessed 9th June 2018
7 Athanassiou L, Kostoglou-Athanassiou I, Koteli A, Mavragani C, Athannasiou P and Koutsilieris M. Vitamin D and obesity. Endocrine Abstracts (2018). Available at: www.endocrine-abstracts.org/ea/0056/ea0056p290.htm. Accessed 9th June 2018
8 Pereira-Santos M, Costa PRF, Assis AMO, Santos CAST and Santos DB. Obesity and vitamin D deficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Review. 2015. 16(4): https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12239
9 NHS Digital. Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet. England: 2017. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/613532/obes-phys-acti-diet-eng-2017-rep.pdf. Accessed 4th December 2017
10 Holland and Barrett. Vitamin D3 250 Tablets 10ug. Available at: www.hollandandbarrett.com/shop/product/holland-barrett-vitamin-d3-tablets-10ug-60001140?skuid=001143. Accessed 11th June 2018
11 Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs. 2014. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/287673/margarine-fortification-sum-resp-201403.pdf. Accessed 13th June 2018
12 Harika RK, Dotsch-Klerk M, Zock PL and Eilander A. Compliance with Dietary Guidelines and Increased Fortification Can Double Vitamin D Intake: A Simulation Study. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism (2017). 69(3-4): 246-255

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1 Fildes A, van Jaarsveld C, Cooke L, Wardle J and Llewellyn C (2014). Common genetic architecture underlying young children’s food fussiness and liking for vegetables and fruit. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Apr; 99(4): 911-7
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Page 31 - GLUTEN-FREE DIET - FACT OR FAD? By Rebecca Gasche
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1 World Health Organisation (WHO), UNICEF, ICCIDD (2007). Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination: A guide for programme managers. Third edition (updated 1st Sept 2008) http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43781/9789241595827_eng.pdf;jsessionid=713C852FC7FD0CB48E744B9A5350FE3C?sequence=1
2 Vanderpump et al (2011). Iodine status of UK schoolgirls: a cross-sectional survey. The Lancet, vol 377, issue 9782, 11-17:2007-2012. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21640375
3 ICCIDD: www.ign.org/index.cfm
4 Michael B Zimmermann. Iodine Deficiency. Endocrine Reviews, vol 30, issue 4, 1 June 2009, p 376-408,https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2009-0011
5 Barnett CA, Visser TJ, Williams F et al (2002). Inadequate iodine intake of 40% of pregnant women from a region in Scotland. J Endocrinol Invest, 25: 90
6 Phillips DIW (1997). Iodine, milk and the elimination of endemic goitre in Britain: the story of an accidental public health triumph. J Epidemiol Community Health, 51: 391-393
7 www.foodsafety.govt.nz/elibrary/industry/Iodine_Fortification-Background_Information.htm
8 Charlton K, Probst Y and Kiene G (2016). Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme. Nutrients. 2016 Nov; 8(11): 701. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5133088/
9 Dianjun Sun, Karen Codling, Suying Chang, Shubin Zhang, Hongmei Shen, Xiaohui Su, Zupei Chen, Robert W Scherpbier and Jun Yan (2017). Eliminating Iodine Deficiency in China: Achievements, Challenges and Global Implications. Nutrients. 2017 Apr; 9(4): 361. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5409700/
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Further reading
The Lancet. (2008) Iodine deficiency: a way to go yet. Lancet, 372:88
B de Benoist et al (2008). Iodine deficiency in 2007; global progress since 2003. Food Nutr Bull, 29: 195-202