NOVEMBER 16 ISSUE 119

Page 10 SUGAR IS THE NUMBER ONE TARGET IN THE WAR ON OBESITY: BUT IS IT REALLY TO BLAME?

1 Institute for Fiscal Studies

2 Briggs A et al (2013). Overall and income specific effect on prevalence of overweight and obesity of 20% sugar sweetened drink tax in UK: econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. BMJ

3 Budget. www.gov.uk/government/publications/budget-2016-documents/budget-2016#fnref:84

4 Anderson et al (2016). Adiposity among 132,479 UK Biobank participants; contribution of sugar intake vs other macronutrients. Int J Epidemiol

Page 14 EATING DISORDERS: IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT IN COMMUNITY SETTINGS

1 The cost of Eating Disorders. Social, health and economic impacts, Feb 2015. BEAT

2 NHS Choices www.nhs.uk/Livewell/eatingdisorders/Pages/eating-disorders-explained.aspx

3 NICE guidelines: Eating Disorders: Core interventions in the treatment and management of Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and related eating disorders. 2004

www.gov.uk/government/news/deputy-pm-announces-150m-investment-to-transform-treatment-for-eating-disorders

Page 19 FOLLOW-ON FORMULA: WHEN BREASTFEEDING REQUIRES SUPPLEMENTING

1 World Health Organisation (2003). Global Strategy for Infant and Child Feeding. Geneva: WHO

2 Department of Health Infant Feeding Recommendations May 2003

3 Department of Health. Infant Feeding Survey (2010) (Published 2012)

4 Article 2(2)(c) of Regulation (EU) No 609/2013 and Codex Stan 72-1981.13. Codex-Stan 72-1981 (Codex Alimentarius), 2011. Standard for infant formula and formulas for special medical purposes intended for infants. Adopted 1981, amended 1983, 1985, 1987, revised 2007, amended 2011

5 The European Food Safety Association Journal (2014) 12(7): 3760 Scientific Opinion on the essential composition of infant and follow-on formulae

6 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence PH11 Maternal and Child Nutrition. London: NICE, 2008

7 Hester SN, Hustead DS, Mackey AD. Is the macronutrient intake of formula-fed infants greater than breastfed infants in early infancy? J Nutr Metab, 2012 doi:10.1155/2012/8911201

8 Infant Milks in the UK. A Practical Guide for Health Professionals 2016. First Steps Nutrition Trust

9 SACN 2007. Subgroup on Maternal and Child Nutrition’s (SMCN) response to the Infant Formula and Follow-on Formula Draft Regulations 2007

10 WHO (2013). Information concerning the use and marketing of follow-up formula

11 Moy RJ. Iron fortification of infant formula. Nutrition Research Reviews 2000;13(2): 215-27)

12 Iron Requirements of Infants and Toddlers. M Domellof, C Braegger, C Campoy, V Colomb, T Decsi, M Fewtrell, I Hojsak, W Mihatsch, C Molgaard, R Shamir, D Turck, J van Goudoever, ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition: JPGN 2014;58: 119-129

13 Belton NR. 2005. Healthy Start - will it provide optimal infant and child nutrition? Nutrition and Food Science 35(2): 74-80

14 Wharton BA (1999). Iron deficiency in children: detection and prevention. British Journal of Haemotology 106(2): 270-280

15 Wharton BA. International recommendations on protein intakes in infancy: some points for discussion. In: Räihä NCR, ed. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series. Vol 33. New York: Raven Press, 1994:67-86

16 Räihä NCR, Axelsson IE. Protein intake during infancy. Scand J Nutr 1996;40:151-5

17 SACN 2007. Subgroup on Maternal and Child Nutrition’s (SMCN) response to the Infant Formula and Follow–on Formula Draft Regulations 2007

18 Infant Feeding Survey (2010). Published 2012

19 Wharton BA. International recommendations on protein intakes in infancy: some points for discussion. In: Räihä NCR, ed. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series. Vol 33. New York: Raven Press, 1994: 67-86

20 Räihä NCR, Axelsson IE. Protein intake during infancy. Scand J Nutr 1996; 40:151-5

21 Infant Milks in the UK. A Practical Guide for Health Professionals 2016. First Steps Nutrition Trust

22 SACN (2007). Subgroup on Maternal and Child Nutrition’s (SMCN) response to the Infant Formula and Follow-on Formula Draft Regulations 2007

23 Extensive literature search and review as preparatory work for the evaluation of the essential composition of infant and follow-on formulae and growing-up milk. MJ Tijhuis PhD, EL Doets PhD, M Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten PhD. EFSA supporting publication 2014: EN-551. 2014

Page 25 CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE AND THE OBESE PATIENT

1 Ferreira IM (2000). Nutritional support for patients with COPD. A meta-analysis. Chest; 117

2 Altinoz H (2016). Obesity might be a good prognosis factor for COPD patients using domicillary non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Int J COPD

3 Hanson C (2014). Influence of diet and obesity on COPD development and outcomes. International Journal of COPD

4 Leitzmann MF (2014). Body size and physical activity in relation to incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Canadian Medical Association Journal

5 Lambert A (2016). Obesity is Associated with Increased Morbidity in Moderate to Severe COPD. Chest

6 Landbo C (1999). Prognostic value of nutritional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Journal Resp Crit Care Med

7 Zapatero A (2013). Malnutrition and obesity: influence in mortality and readmissions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. J Human Nutr Diet

8 Stoll P (2016). Overweight is a predictor of long term survival in hospitalised patients with exacerbations of COPD. Resp Medicine

9 Galesanu (2014). COPD and Obesity. Is fatter really better? Can Resp J

10 Van de Bool C (2015). Antagonistic implications of sarcopenia and abdominal obesity on physical performance in COPD. European Respiratory Journal

11 Guo Y (2016). Body mass index and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A dose-response meta-analysis. Medicine

12 McDonald V (2016). Should we treat Obesity in COPD? - The effect of diet and resistance training. Respirology

Page 31 ENHANCED RECOVERY AFTER SURGERY: THE ROLE OF NUTRITION

1 Referencesvan Bokhorst-de van der Schueren MA, van Leeuwen PA, Sauerwein HP et al (1997). Assessment of malnutrition parameters in head and neck cancer and their relation to postoperative complications. Head Neck 19(5): 419-25

2 Durkin MT, Mercer KG, McNulty MF et al (1999). Vascular surgical society of Great Britain and Ireland: contribution of malnutrition to postoperative morbidity in vascular surgical patients. Br J Surg 86(5): 702

3 Fearon KCH, Ljungqvist O, Von Meyenfeldt M et al (2005). Enhanced recovery after surgery: A consensus review of clinical care for patients undergoing colonic resection. Clin Nutr 245(3); 466-477

4 Weimann A, Braga M, Harsanyi L et al (2006). ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Surgery including Organ Transplantation. Clin Nutr 25.224-244

5 Arends J, Bachmann P, Baracos V et al (2016). ESPEN guidelines on nutrition in cancer patients. Clin Nutr (2016) 1-38 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2016.07.015

6 Elia M, Russell CA (eds) (2009). Combating malnutrition; Recommendations for Action. A report from the Advisory Group on Malnutrition, led by BAPEN. Redditch: BAPEN

7 BAPEN Quality Group (2010). Malnutrition Matters - Meeting Quality Standards in Nutritional Care: A Toolkit for Commissioners and Providers in England www.bapen.org.uk/pdfs/toolkit-for-commissioners.pdf (Accessed: October 2016)

8 The Veterans Affairs Total Parenteral Nutrition Cooperative Study Group (1991). Perioperative total parenteral nutrition in surgical patients. N Engl J Med; 325:525e32

9 Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F et al (2001). Intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 345:1359-67

10 Zaloga GP (1999). Early enteral nutritional support improves outcome: hypothesis or fact? Crit Care Med 27: 259-61

11 Lewis SJ, Egger M, Sylvester PA, Thomas S (2001). Early enteral feeding versus ‘nil by mouth’ after gastrointestinal surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials BMJ 323:1-5

12 British Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (BAPEN). Administering drugs via enteral feeding tubes: a practical guide. www.BAPEN.org.uk/pdfs/d_and_e/de_pract_guide.pdf (Accessed: Sept 2016)

13 Jie B, Jiang ZM, Nolan MT, Zhu SN, Yu K, Kondrup J (2012). Impact of preoperative nutritional support on clinical outcome in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk. Nutrition. 28(10): 1022-1027

14 Marimuthu K, Varadhan KK, Ljungqvist O, Lobo DN (2012). A meta-analysis of the effect of combinations of immune modulating nutrients on outcome in patients undergoing major open gastrointestinal surgery. Ann Surg 255:1060e8

15 Nygren J, Soop M, Thorell A, Efendic S, Nair KS, Ljungqvist O (1998). Preoperative oral carbohydrate administration reduces ostoperative insulin resistance. Clin Nutr 17(2): 65-71

16 Yuill KA, Richardson RA, Davidson HI, Garden OJ, Parks RW (2005). The administration of an oral carbohydrate-containing fluid prior to major elective upper-gastrointestinal surgery preserves skeletal muscle mass postoperatively - a randomised clinical trial. Clin Nutr 24(1): 32-7

17 Soop M, Nygren J, Thorell A et al (2004). Preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment attenuates endogenous glucose release three days after surgery. Clin Nutr 23: 733-41

18 Soop M, Myrenfors P, Nygren J et al (1998). Preoperative oral carbohydrate intake attenuates metabolic changes immediately after hip replacement. Clinical Nutrition 17(Supp 1): 3-4

19 Svanfeldt M, Thorell A, Hausel J et al (2007). Randomised clinical trial of the effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment on postoperative whole-body protein and glucose kinetics. Br J Surg 94: 1342-50

20 Soop M, Carlson GL, Hopkinson J et al (2004). Randomised clinical trial of the effects of immediate enteral nutrition on metabolic responses to major colorectal surgery in an enhanced recovery protocol. Br J Surg 91: 1138-45

21 Ljunggvist O, Nygren J, Thorell A (2002). Modulation of post-operative insulin resistance by pre-operative carbohydrate loading Proc Nutr Soc 61(3): 329-36

22 Evans WJ (2010). Skeletal muscle loss: cachexia, sarcopenia, and inactivity. Am J Clin Nutr 91(4): 1123S-1127S

23 Tyldesley S, Sheehan F, Munk P et al (1979). Prediction of operative morbidity and mortality by preoperative nutritional assessment. Surg Forum ;30:80e2

24 Fried L, Tangen CM, Walston J et al (2001). Frailty in older adults: Evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56:M134-M135

25 Kortebein P, Ferrando A, Lombeida J et al (2007). Effect of 10 days of bed rest on skeletal muscle in healthy older adults. JAMA 297: 1772-1774

26 Paddon-Jones D, Sheffield-Moore M, Urban RJ et al (2004). Essential amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation ameliorates muscle protein loss in humans during 28 days bedrest. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:4351-4358

27 Russell CA and Elia M (2011). Nutrition screening surveys in hospitals in the UK, 2007-2011 www.bapen.org.uk/pdfs/nsw/bapen-nsw-uk.pdf (Accessed: Sept 2016)

28 Milne AC, Potter J, Vivanti A, Avenell A (2009). Protein and energy supplementation in elderly people at risk from malnutrition. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 15(2). CD003288

29 Hill GL (1994). Changes in body compositional and outcomes

30 Paddon-Jones D, Sheffield-Moore M, Katsanos CS et al (2006). Differential stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in elderly humans following isocaloric ingestion of amino acids or whey protein. Exp Gerontol 41: 215-219

31 Volpi E, Mittendorfer B, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR (1999). Oral amino acids stimulate muscle protein anabolism in the elderly despite higher first-pass splanchnic extraction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol 277 :E513-E520

32 Symons TB, Sheffield-Moore M, Wolfe RR, Paddon-Jones D (2009). A moderate serving of high-quality protein maximally stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis in young and elderly subjects. J Am Diet Assoc 109: 1582-1586

33 Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) (2016). Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support in the critically ill patient. J Parenteral Enteral Nutr 40(2): 159-211

34 Moore A (2014). Enhanced perspective: Enhanced recovery programmes should be an integral part of a surgery patients’ care plan both before and after surgery. Health Service Journal. hsj.co.uk

Page 35 COELIAC DISEASE AND BONE HEALTH IN ADULTS

1 Green PH and Cellier C (2007). Celiac disease. N Engl J Med, 357(17), 1731-1743

2 Heikkila et al (2015). Celiac disease and bone fractures. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 100(1), 25-34

3 Coeliac UK (2016). Coeliac disease key facts and stats 2016. Retrieved from www.coeliac.org.uk/document-library/25-key-facts-and-stats/?return=/about-us/media-centre/ on 10.09.16

4 Gujral et al (2012). Celiac disease: prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment. World J Gastroenterol, 18(42), 6036-6059

5 The British Specialist Nutrition Association (BSNA) (2011). Guide to the role of the gluten-free prescription in the management of coeliac disease. Retrieved from www.bsna.co.uk/categories/gluten_free_foods/news_and_views/index/89526/BSNA_publish_A_Guide_to_the_Role_of_the_Gluten-Free_Prescription_in_the_Management_of_Coeliac_Disease on 12.09.16

6 Lucendo AJ and Garcia-Manzanares A (2013). Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: An updates review. Rev Esp Enferm Dig, 105(3), 154-162

7 Mirza F and Canalis E (2015). Secondary Osteoporosis: Pathophysiology and Management. Eur J Endocrinol, 173(3), 131-151

8 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2012). Osteoporosis: assessing the risk of fragility fracture. Clinical guideline 146. Retrieved from www.nice.org.uk/Guidance/CG146 on 08.08.16

9 Primary Care Society for Gastroenterology (PCSG) (2006). The management of adults with coeliac disease in primary care. Retrieved from www.coeliac.org.uk/document-library/1464-primary-care-society-for-gastroenterology-2006/ on 12/09/16

10 McFarlane et al (1995). Osteoporosis in treated adult coeliac disease. Gut, 36, 710 -714

11 National Osteoporosis Society (2015). Coeliac disease and osteoporosis. Retrieved from www.nos.org.uk/file/resources/Coeliac-disease-and-osteoporosis-UPDATE-MARCH-2015.pdf on 08.09.16

12 Lewis NR and Scott BB (2007). Guidelines for osteoporosis in inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease. British Society of Gastroenterology. Retrieved from www.bsg.org.uk/pdf_word_docs/ost_coe_ibd.pdf on 08/08/16

13 Heyman R et al (2009). Effect of a gluten-free diet on bone mineral density in children with celiac disease. Gastroenterol Clin Biol, 33(2), 109-14

14 Blazina S et al (2010). Bone mineral density and importance of strict gluten-free diet in children and adolescents with celiac disease. Bone, 47(3), 598-603

15 Ludvigsson et al (2014). Diagnosis and management of adult coeliac disease: guidelines from the British Society of Gastroenterology. Retrieved from http://gut.bmj.com/content/early/2014/06/10/gutjnl-2013-306578. Abstract on 08.08.16

16 Valdimarsson et al (1996). Reversal of osteopaenia with diet in adult coeliac disease. Gut, (38), 322-327

17 Molteni et al (1990). Bone mineral density in adult celiac patients and the effect of gluten-free diet from childhood. Am J Gastroenterol, 1, 51-3

18 Mooney P and Sanders D (2014). Coeliac disease: A medical chameleon. Complete Nutrition, 14(4), 51-53

19 Larussa et al (2012). Bone mineralisation in celiac disease. Gastroenterol Res Pract, Article ID 198025

20 Kinsey et al (2008). A dietary survey to determine if patients with coeliac disease are meeting current healthy eating guidelines and how their diet compares to that of the British general population. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 62, 1333-1342

21 Rizolli R (2008). Nutrition: its role in bone health. Best Practice and Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 22(5), 813-29

22 Ruxton C (2015). Optimal diet for bone health. Complete Nutrition, 104, 11-15

23 Palacios C (2006). The Role of Nutrients in Bone Health; from A-Z. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46, 621-628

24 Adami et al (2008). Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone, vitamin D sufficiency, age, and calcium intake. Bone, 42, 267-270

25 Kroll MH (2000). Parathyroid hormone temporal effects on bone formation and resorption. Bull Math Biol, 62(1), 163-88

26 Bates et al (2014). National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Results from Years 1-4 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2008/2009-2011/12), Executive Summary. Retrieved from www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/310997/NDNS_Y1_to_4_UK_report_Executive_summary.pdf on 10.09.16

27 European Food Safety Authority (2016). Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for vitamin D. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies. EFSA Journal 2016. Retrieved from www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/consultation/160321.pdf on 08/08/16

28 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) (2016). Vitamin D & Health. Retrieved from www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/537616/SACN_Vitamin_D_and_Health_report.pdf on 12.09.16

29 Department of Health (1998). Nutrition and bone health: with particular reference to calcium and vitamin D. Report of the Subgroup on Bone Health, Working Group on the Nutritional Status of the Population of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy. Rep Health Soc Subj, 49, 1-24

30 Bates et al (2003). In a population study, can parathyroid hormone aid the definition of adequate vitamin D status? A study of people aged 65 years and over from the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Osteoporosis International, 14, 152-9

Page 43 INTRODUCING SOLID FOODS: SUPPORTING PARENTS

1 National Child Measurement Programme - England, 2014-15

2 Dental public health epidemiology programme, 2013. Oral health survey of three-year-old children.

3 Department of Health (2011). Start Active, Stay Active: A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries

4 Foresight (2007). Tackling Obesities: Future Choices - Project report

5 National Obesity Observatory (2016). Health Risks. www.noo.org.uk/NOO_about_obesity/child_obesity/Health_risks

6 Infant Feeding Survey UK (2010)

7 Department of Health (2011). Introducing Solid Foods

Page 48 MEAL REPLACEMENTS IN OBESITY MANAGEMENT

1 The Health and Social Care Information Centre (2015). Health Survey for England 2014. Chapter 9. Adult Obesity and Overweight p 1-17 www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB19295/HSE2014-ch9-adult-obe.pdf (Accessed June 2016)

2 SIGN 115. Management of Obesity. A national clinical guideline. Edinburgh, Scotland. Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network. 2010. www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign115.pdf (Accessed Sept 2016)

3 National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. Clinical Guideline 189: November 2014 www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg189/resources/obesity-identification-assessment-and-management-35109821097925 (Accessed Sept 2016)

http://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/labelling_nutrition/special_groups_food/weight_reduction_en

5 Christensen H, Bliddal BF, Reike AR et al. Comparison of a low energy diet and a very low energy diet in sedentary obese individuals: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Clin Obes 2011; 1(1):31-40

6 Richelson B, Tonstad S, Rossner S et al. Effect of orlistat on weight regain and cardiovascular risk factors following a very low energy diet in abdominally obese patients: a three-year randomised placebo controlled study. Diabetes Care 2007; 30(1): 27-32

7 Lean M, Brosnahan N, McLoone P, McCombie L, Bell-Higgs A, Ross H, Mackenzie M, Grieve E, Finer N, Reckless J, Haslam D, Sloan B, Morrison D. Feasibility and indicative results from a 12-month low energy liquid diet treatment and maintenance programme for severe obesity. British Journal of General Practice 2013

8 8Heymsfield SB, Van Mierlo CA, Van der Knaap HC, Heo M, Frier HI 2003. Weight Management Using a Meal Replacement Strategy and meta and pooling analysis from six studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003

9 Purcell K, Sumithran P and Prendergast LA et al. The effects of rate of weight loss on long-term weight management: a randomised controlled trail. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2014. Dec 2(12); 954-62

10 Johansson K. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet and exercise on weight loss maintenance after a Very Low Calorie Diet or Low Calorie Diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials