March 16: Issue 112 references

Pg. 10 - Commissioning Excellent Nutrition and Hydration: NHS England guidance

1 British Association of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (2015). The cost of malnutrition in England and potential cost savings from nutritional interventions www.bapen.org.uk/professionals/publications-and-resources/bapen-reports (accessed 18 Dec 2015)

2 NHS England (2015). Commissioning Excellent Nutrition and Hydration www.england.nhs.uk/commissioning/nut-hyd/ (accessed 18 Dec 2015)

3 Francis R (2013). Report of the Mid-Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public HMSO Inquiry Crown Copyright

Pg. 14 - Gluten-free diets for athletic performance

1 Gaesser GA and Angadi SS (2012). Gluten-free diet: Imprudent dietary advice for the general population? Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112(9), 1330-1333

2 Lis D, Stellingwerff T, Kitic CM, Ahuja KDK and Fell JW (2015). No effects of a short-term gluten-free diet on performance in non-celiac athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(12), 2563-2570

3 Lis DM, Stellingwerff T, Shing CM, Ahuja KDK and Fell JW (2015). Exploring the popularity, experiences and beliefs surrounding gluten-free diets in non-celiac athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25(1), 37-45

4 Black KE, Skidmore PML and Brown RC (2012). Energy intakes of ultra-endurance cyclists during competition, an observational study. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 22(1), 19-23

5 Therrian FJ (2015). Macronutrient intake and fluid status of elite female distance runners at moderate altitude. Kansas State University. Retrieved from http://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/20120

6 Newman K and Beachy K (2015). Excluding gluten in a healthy collegiate runner. Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of The Ohio Athletic Trainers Association, 1(1). Retrieved from http://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1017&context=jsmahs

7 Halson SL and Martin DT (2013). Lying to win - Placebos and sport science. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 8, 597-599

8 Quinteros-Fernandez SA (2015). Knowledge and behaviors surrounding a gluten-free diet between medically and self-diagnosed individuals. Syracuse University. Retrieved from http://surface.syr.edu/thesis/112/

9 Shepherd SJ and Gibson PR (2013). Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet in post recently-diagnosed and long-term patients with coeliac disease. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: The Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association, 26(4), 349-58

10 Wu JHY, Neal B, Trevena H, Crino M, Stuart-Smith W, Faulkner-Hogg K, Dunford E. (2015). Are gluten-free foods healthier than non-gluten-free foods? An evaluation of supermarket products in Australia. The British Journal of Nutrition, 114(3), 448-54. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114515002056

11 Missbach B, Schwingshackl L, Billmann A, Mystek A, Hickelsberger M, Bauer G and König J (2015). Gluten-free food database: the nutritional quality and cost of packaged gluten-free foods. Peer J, 3, e1337. http://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1337

12 Staudacher HM, Lomer MCE, Anderson JL, Barrett JS, Muir JG, Irving PM and Whelan K (2012). Fermentable carbohydrate restriction reduces luminal bifidobacteria and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The Journal of Nutrition, 142(8), 1510-8. http://doi.org/10.3945/jn.112.159285

Pg. 17 – Sports Nutrition: Case Study

1 B Thomas and BDA, 3rd edition (2001). Manual of Dietetic Practice, Oxford

2 A Pocket Guide to Clinical Nutrition (2011), 4th edition, the PEN Group, British Dietetic Association, BDA, Birmingham

3 Joint position statement: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly American Dietetic Association) Dietitians of Canada, American college of sports medicine (2009) Nutrition and athletic performance. Advancing health through food and nutrition. Pdf-position-paper.pdf (accessed12th January 2016)

4 www.bda.uk.com/foodfacts/home/sports food facts pdf by Linia Patel RD (accessed 9th January 2016)

5 www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/Fat.aspx (accessed 9th January 2016)

6 DOH (1991), 41 Dietary Reference values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom, The Stationery office, Norwich, UK

7 European Food Safety Authority (2010). Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for water, EFSA Journal 8: pg 1459

8 www.Nutrimen.co.uk (accessed 9th January 2016)

9 Benadot D (2012), 2nd edition, Advanced Sports Nutrition, Sheridan Press, USA

10 www.gov.uk/government/uploads/SACN_Carbohydrates_and_Health.pdf (accessed 9th January 2016)

11 McCarthy EK and Kiely M (2015). Vitamin D and muscle strength throughout the life course: a review of epidemiological and intervention studies. Journal of human Nutrition and Diet, 28, pg 636-645, doi:10.1111/jhn.12268

12 www.gov.uk/SACN_Vitamin_D_and_Health_Report.pdf (accessed 9th January 2016)

13 MAFF (1996), 10th edition, Manual of Nutrition, The Stationery office, Norwich, UK

14 www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/aug/16/washout-british-summer-witness-holiday-experts (accessed 9th January 2016)

15 Bates B et al (2014). National Diet and Nutrition survey. Results from years 1-4 (combined) of the rolling programme (2008/2009-2011/12), London: Public Health England

16 Spiro A and Buttriss J (2014). Vitamin D and overview of vitamin D status and intake in Europe, Nutrition Bulletin 39: pg 322-350

17 Patel L (2013) Eat drink and recover - The basics of sports nutrition recovery, Dietetics Today, May 2013: vol 39, No 5, pg 30-32

18 Rang H P et al (1996), 3rd Edition, Pharmacology, Churchill Livingstone, London, UK

19 Foods Standard Agency (2003). Safe upper levels for vitamins and minerals, available at http://cot.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/vitmin2003.pdf (accessed 9th January 2016)

20 Padden-Jones et al (2008). Role of dietary protein in the sarcopenia of ageing, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87 (supplement) 1562s-6s

21 Matt Fitzgerald (2013). The new rules of marathon and half marathon nutrition, Boston, USA

22 www.jissn.com/content/7/1/7 (electronic version). ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research and recommendations, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2010, 7:7, accessed 9th January 2016

23 Economos CD et al (1993). Sports medicine, Nutritional practices of elite athletes. Practical recommendations, Dec 16 (6) 381-399

Pg. 25 - Infant weaning: getting the best start

1 World Health Organisation. Complementary feeding of young children in developing countries: a review of current scientific knowledge. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation, 1998

2 DH. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report of the Panel on Dietary Reference Values of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. Report on Health and Social Subjects No 41. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO); 1991

3 DH. COMA Report 45. Weaning and the Weaning Diet. Report on Health and Social Subjects. HMSO, London; 1994

4 World Health Organisation (2001). The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: report on an expert consultation. Geneva: WHO

5 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2000). SACN Committee Meeting. September 2001

6 DH. Infant Feeding Recommendation. London: NB The Department of Health Infant Feeding Recommendations; 2003a.

7 Lanigan JA, Bishop J, Kimber AC, Morgan J. Systematic review concerning the age of introduction of complementary foods to the healthy full-term infant. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55; 309-20

8 Butte NF, Lopez-Alarcon MG, Garza C (2002). Nutrient adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding for the term infant during the first six months of life. WHO, Geneva

9 World Health Organisation. Global strategy for infant and young child feeding. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation, 2003

10 ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. Complementary Feeding: A Commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2008; 46: 99-110

11 SACN. The SACN Subgroup on Maternal and Child Nutrition (SMCN): The Influence of maternal, fetal and child nutrition on the development of chronic disease in later life, 2011

12 SACN. Dietary Reference values for Energy. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition; 2011

13 Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (2011). UK - WHO Growth Charts: early years. Available at: www.rcpch.ac.uk/growthcharts (Feb 2016)

14 British Dietetic Association (2013). Policy Statement. Complementary feeding: Introduction of solid food to an infant’s diet. Accessed online www.bda.uk.com/publications/professional/complementary_feeding_weaning (Feb 2016)

15 BLISS: Weaning your premature baby. 8th edition (2014). www.bliss.org.uk/Shop/weaning-your-premature-baby (Accessed Feb 2016).

16 The 1000 days campaign (2016). http://thousanddays.org/ (Accessed Feb 2016)

17 Bhutta ZA. Early nutrition and adult outcomes: Pieces of the puzzle. [Comment] Lancet, 382 (9891) (2013), pp 486-487

18 Barker DJ. Sir Richard Doll lecture: developmental origins of chronic disease. Public Health 2012; 126: 185-89

19 EAT (Enquiring About Tolerance) Study (in progress).www.eatstudy.co.uk/ (Accessed Feb 2016)

20 European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (2014). EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Primary prevention of food allergy. Allergy; 69: 590-601

21 Du Toit G et al (2015). Randomised trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk of peanut allergy. New England Journal of Medicine DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1414850)

Pg. 31 - DYSPHAGIA: what every dietitian MUST know about thickeners

1 Clarke S (May 2015). Appropriate prescribing of thickeners for dysphagia in adults. NHS Prescquipp, Bulletin 100. Accessed on 04/02/16 from: www.prescqipp.info/thickeners-for-dysphagia/finish/339-thickeners-for-dysphagia/1939-bulletin-100-thickeners-for-dysphagia.

2 Dantas RO, Kern MK, Massey BT, Dodds WJ, Kahrilas PJ, Braswseur JG, Cook IJ and Lang IM (1990). Effect of the swallowed bolus variables on oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing. American Physiological Society, 258, pp G675-G681

3 Cichero JA (2013). Thickening agents used for dysphagia management: effect on bioavailability of water, medication and feelings of satiety. Nutrition Journal, 12, 54.

4 Livesey G (2001). Tolerance of low-digestible carbohydrates: a general review. British Journal of Nutrition, 85, suppl. 1, pp S7-S16

5 Whelan K (2001). Inadequate fluid intakes in dysphagic acute stroke. Clinical Nutrition, 20, 5, pp 423-428

6 Philip KE and Greenwood CE (2000). Nutrient contribution of infant cereals used as fluid thickening agents in diet fed to the elderly. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 100, 5, pp 549-554

7 Finestone HM, Foley NC, Woodbury MG and Greene-Finestone L (2001). Quantifying fluid intake in dysphagic stroke patients: A preliminary comparison of oral and non-oral strategies. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82, 12, pp 1744-1746

8 Vivanti AP, Campbell KL, Michelle S, Hannan-Jones MT and Hulcombe JA (2009). Contribution of thickened drinks, food and enteral and parenteral fluids to fluid intake in hospitalised patients with dysphagia. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 22, 2, pp 148-155

9 Bunn D, Jimoh F and Howard S (2015). Increasing fluid intake and reducing dehydration risk in older people living in long-term care: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 16, pp 101-113

10 Yeomans MR, Chambers L, Blumenthal H and Blake A (2008). The role of expectancy in sensory and hedonic evaluation: The case of smoked salmon ice cream. Food Quality and Preference, 19, pp 565-573

11 Philip KE and Greenwood, CE (2000). Nutrient contribution of infant cereals used as fluid thickening agents in diet fed to the elderly. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 100, 5, pp 549-554

12 Vivanti AP, Campbell KL, Michelle S, Hannan-Jones MT and Hulcombe JA (2009). Contribution of thickened drinks, food and enteral and parenteral fluids to fluid intake in hospitalised patients with dysphagia. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 22, 2, pp 148-155

Pg. 38 - The dietetic management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

1 Longstreth et al (2006). Functional Bowel Disorders. Gastroenterology, 130, 1480-1491

2 Lovell RM and Ford AC (2012). Global prevalence of and risk factors for irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol, 10, 712-721

3 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2008). Irritable bowel syndrome in adults: Diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome in primary care. CG61

4 Soubieres et al (2014). Burden of irritable bowel syndrome in an increasingly cost-aware National Health Service. Frontline Gastroenterology, 6, 246-251

5 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2008). Irritable bowel syndrome. Costing report: Implementing NICE guidance. GC61

6 British Dietetic Association (BDA) (2015). Influencing Action Pack. Available from: www.bda.com

7 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2015). Addendum to NICE guideline CG61, Irritable bowel syndrome in adults: Diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome in primary care. CG61.1

8 McKenzie et al and on behalf of the Gastroenterology Specialist Group of the British Dietetic Association (2012), British Dietetic Association evidence-based guidelines for the dietary management of irritable bowel syndrome in adults. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 25, 260-274

9 Gibson PR and Shepherd SS (2010). Evidence-based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: The FODMAP approach. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 25, 252-258

10 British Society of Gastroenterology (2015). Clinical Commissioning Report on IBS/Functional Symptoms. Available from www.bsg.org.uk/cliniccl/commissioning-report/ibs/functional-symptoms.htm

11 Spiegel et al (2010). Measuring symptoms in the irritable bowel syndrome: development of a framework for clinical trials. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 32(10), 1275-129

12 Irvine et al (2006). Design of Treatment Trials for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Gastroenterology, 130(5), 1538-1551

13 British Dietetic Association (BDA) (2011). Model for Dietetic Outcomes. Available from: www.bda.uk.com

14 McKenzie Y (2014). Developing dietetic outcome measures for IBS management. Dietetics Today, 41(9), 32-25

Pg. 43 - Nutrition in cystic fibrosis: requirements and recommendations

1 Slieker MG, Uiterwaal CS, Sinaasappel M, Heijerman HG, van der Laag J and van der Ent CK. Birth prevalence and survival in cystic fibrosis: a national cohort study in the Netherlands. Chest Oct 2005; 128: 2309-2315

2 Borowitz D. The inter-relationship of nutrition and pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 1996 Nov; 457-461

3 Corey M, McLaughlin FJ, Williams M and Levison HA comparison of survival, growth and pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis in Boston and Toronto. J Clin Epidemiol.1988; 41: 583-591

4 Dodge JA and Turck D Cystic fibrosis: nutritional consequences and management. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2006; 20: 531-546

5 Vaisman N, Pencharz PB, Corey M, Canny GJ, Hahn E. Energy expenditure of patients with CF. J Pediatr, 1987, 111: 496-500

6 Bucchdahl RM, Cox M, Fulleylove C et al. Increased resting energy expenditure in cystic fibrosis. J App Phys, 1988, 64 1810-16

7 Steinkamp G, Drommer A, von der Hardt H. Resting energy expenditure before and after treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993; 57: 685-689

8 Zemel BS, Kawchak DA, Cnaan A, Zhao H, Scanlin TF and Stallings VA. Prospective evaluation of resting energy expenditure, nutritional status, pulmonary functions, and genotype in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Res. 1996; 40: 578-586

9 Fried M, Durie P, Lap-CheeTsui, Corey M, Levison H and Penchaz P. The cystic fibrosis gene and resting energy expenditure. J Pediatr. 1991; 119: 913-916

10 Buchdahl R, Cox M, Fulleylove C, Marchant J, Tomkins A et al. Increased resting energy expenditure in cystic fibrosis. J Appl Physiol. 1988; 64: 1810-1816

11 Moudiou T, Galli-Tsinopoulou A, Vamvakoudis E, Nousia-Arvanitakis S. Resting energy expenditure in cystic fibrosis as an indicator of disease severity. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. 2007; Vol 6, Issue 2, pg 131-136

12 Moudiou T, Galli-Tsinopoulou A, Panagopoulou P, Vamvakoudis E and Nousia-Arvanitakis S. Nutritional status and its relation to body composition and resting energy expenditure. JPGN. 2004; 39: 166-167

13 Moudiou T, Galli-Tsinopoulou A, Panagopoulou P and Nousia-Arvanitakis S. Energy intake, body composition and pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros. 2004; 3: 579

14 M Fried, P Durie, L Tsui, M Corey, H Levison, P Pencharz. The cystic fibrosis gene and resting energy expenditure. Journal of Pediatrics, 119 (1991), pg 913-916

15 Richards ML, Davies PS, Bell SC. Energy costs of physical activity in CF. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 Aug; 55(8): 690-7

16 Dorlochter L, Roksund O, Helgheim V, Rosendahl K, Fluge G. Resting energy expenditure and lung disease in cystic fibrosis. J Cystic Fibrosis 2002 Sep; 1(3): 131-6

17 Dorlochter L, Roksund O, Helgheim V, Rosendahl K, Fluge G. Shwachman-Kulczycki score and resting energy expenditure in cystic fibrosis. 2003 Sep; 2(3): 148-51

18 Allen J, McCauley J, Selby A, Waters DL, Gruca MA, Baur LA. Differences in resting energy expenditure between male and female children with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Pediatrics. 2003; 142(1): 15-9

19 Stallings VA, Tomezsko JL, Schall JI, Mascarenhas MR, Stettler N, Scanlin T et al (2005). Adolescent development and energy expenditure in females with cystic fibrosis. Clin Nutr 24, 737-745

20 Béghin I, Gottrand F, Michaud L, Loeuille GA, Wizla-Derambure N, Sardet A, Guimber D, Deschildre A, Turck D. Impact of Intravenous Antibiotic Therapy on total daily energy expenditure and physical activity in cystic fibrosis children with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary exacerbation. Vol 54, N. 5, 2003 Paediatric Research

21 Ward SA, Tomezsko JL, Holsclaw DS, Paolone AM, Energy expenditure and substrate utilisation in adults with cystic fibrosis and diabetes mellitus, Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 May; 69(5): 913-9

22 Richards ML, Davies PS, Bell SC. Energy cost of physical activity in cystic fibrosis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 Aug; 55(8): 690-7

23 Fuster CO, Fuster GO, Galindo AD, Galo AP, Verdugo JM, Lozano FM. Analysis of energy expenditure in adults with cystic fibrosis: comparison of indirect calorimetry and prediction equations. Arch Bronconeumol. 2007 Jul; 43(7): 366-72

24 Marín VB, Velandia S, Hunter B, Gattas V, Fielbaum O, Herrera O, Díaz E. Energy expenditure, nutrition status, and body composition in children with cystic fibrosis. Nutrition. 2004 Feb; 20(2): 181-6

25 Salling VA, Fung EB, Hofley PM and Scanlin TF. Acute pulmonary exacerbation is not associated with increased energy expenditure in children with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr. 1998; 132: 493-499

26 Taylor-Robinson DC, Smyth RL, Diggl PJ, Whitehead M. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol 1, Issue 2, pages 121-128, April 2013

27 Ramsey BW, Davies J, McElvaney NG, et al; VX08-770-102 Study Group. A CFTR potentiator in patients with cystic fibrosis and the G551D mutation. N Engl J Med. 2011; 365(18): 1663-1672

28 Stallings VA, Stark LJ, Robinson KA, Quinton H. Evidence based practice recommendations for nutrition-related management of children and adults with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency: results of systematic review. J Am Diet Assoc 2008; 108 (5): 832-910. doi:1016/j.jada.2008.02.020

29 Nutritional intervention in patients with Cystic Fibrosis: A systematic review. Journal of cystic fibrosis: official journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Societ.03/2013; 12(2): 102-115. doi:10.1016/j.jcf.2012.11.005

30 O’Donohoe R, Fullen B M. Adherence of subjects with cystic fibrosis to their home program: a systematic review. Citation: Respiratory Care, 01 Nov 2014, vol./is. 59/11 v(1731-1746), 00201324

Pg. 47 - Ehlers-Danlos/hypermobility syndrome: can diet help with symptoms?

1 Beighton P, De Paepe A, Steinmann B et al (1998). Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome revised nosology. Am J Med Genetics; 77: 31-7

2 Raymond MP and Pattison DJ (2008). Dietary manipulation in musculoskeletal conditions. Best Practice Clinical Rheumatology 22, 535-61

3 UK Heart Health and Thoracic Dietitians Specialist Group (2007) Heart Disease & Omega 3 fats.

4 Gulbahar S, Sahin E, Baydar M, Bircan C, Kizil R, Manisali M, Akalin E, Peker O (2006). Hypermobility syndrome increases the risk of Low Bone Mass. 25: 511-514 Clinical Rheumatology

5 Danese C, Castori M, Celletti C, Amato S, Russo C, Grammatco P, Camerota F (2011). Screening for coeliac disease in the joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers Danlos syndrome. Hypermobility type. Am J.Med. Genet Port A 9999: 1-3

6 Menardo G, Brizzolara R, Boriassi S, Marchetti A, Dante GI et al (2006). Population screening for coeliac disease in a low prevalence area in Italy. Scand J Gastroenterology 41: 1414-1420

7 Tinkle BT, Bird HA, Grahame R, Lavalle M, Levy HP, Sillence D (2009). The lack of clinical distinction between the Hypermobility type of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and the Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (aka Hypermobility Syndrome). Am J Med Genet Part A, 149A: 2368-2367

8 Dolan AL, Arden NK, Grahame R, Spector TD (1998). Assessment of Bone in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome by ultrasound & densitometry. Am Rheum Dis 57: 630-633 DOI: 10.1136/ard 57: 10-630

9 Gurley Green S (2001). Living with the Hypermobility Syndrome. British Society for Rheumatology. 40: 487-489

10 Beighton P, Grahame R, Bird H (2012). Hypermobility of Joints. (4th Ed). Springer-Verlag, London Ltd

11 Bohora S (2010). Joint Hypermobility syndrome and Dysautonomia: expanding spectrum of disease presentation and manifestation. Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal. 10(4): 158-161

Pg. 50 - I have changed my mind… (about Gwyneth Paltrow)!

1 Brockman J (ed) (2014). What have you changed your mind about? Today’s leading minds rethink everything. Edge Foundation Inc, Harper Collins

2 Moody O (Jan 2, 2016). Scientists hoping 2016 will be year of progress. The Times, News, page 35

3 Zeevi D, Korem T, Zmora N et al (2015). Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycaemic Responses. Cell, 163, 5, 1079-1094

Pg. 55 - A day in the life... A dietitan navigating the world of charity

1. Centrepoint UK: http://centrepoint.org.uk/

2. Ashanti Development: http://ashantidevelopment.org/

3. Centrepoint (2015). Toxic Mix: The Health Needs of Homeless Young People. Accessed via: http://centrepoint.org.uk/

4. British Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (2003). Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool. Accessed via: www.bapen.org.uk

5. Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC and Norcross JC (1998). Stages of Change: Prescriptive Guidelines for Behavioural Medicine and Psychotherapy. GP Koocher, JC Norcross and SS Hill III (Eds), Psychologists’ Desk Reference. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press

6. Peña M and Bacallao J (2002). Malnutrition and Poverty. Annual Review of Nutrition. Vol 22: 241-253 (Volume publication date July 2002). DOI: 10.1146/annurev nutr 22.120701.141104