JULY 16: ISSUE 116

Page 8 - TO LOSE WEIGHT, AVOID DIETING!

Further reading

• Johnson B et al (2014). Comparison of Weight Loss Among Named Diet Programs in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 312, 923-93

• Markey CN (2014). Smart People Don't Diet: How the Latest Science Can Help You Lose Weight Permanently. Boston, MA:Da Capo Lifelong Books

• Mata J, Todd PM and Lippke S (2010). When weight management lasts: Lower perceived rule complexity increases adherence. Appetite, 54, 37-43

• Ogden J (1992). Fat Chance! The Myth of Dieting Explained. Routledge: New York

Polivy J and Herman CP (2002). If at first you don’t succeed: False hopes of self change. American Psychologist, 9, 677-689

Page 11 - ENTERAL NUTRITION IN PRETERM INFANTS

1 Tsang RC, Uauy R, Koletzko B, Zlotkin S. Nutrition of the preterm infant. Scientific Basis and Practical Guidelines. 2nd ed. Cincinnati, OH: Digital Educational Publishing; 2005: 67,201,357

2 Pallotto EK, Kilbride HW Perinatal outcome and later implications of intrauterine growth restriction. Clin Obstet Gynecol, 2006, 49 257-69

3 Agostoni C, Buonocore G, Carnielli VP, De Curtis M, Darmaun D, Decsi T, Domellöf M, Embleton ND, Fusch C, Genzel-Boroviczeny O, Goulet O, Kalhan SC, Kolacek S, Koletzko B, Lapillonne A, Mihatsch W, Moreno L, Neu J, Poindexter B, Puntis J, Putet G, Rigo J, Riskin A, Salle B, Sauer P, Shamir R, Szajewska H, Thureen P, Turck D, van Goudoever JB, Ziegler EE. Enteral Nutrition Supply for Preterm Infants: Commentary from the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee. (ESPGHAN). JPGN 2010; 50: 1-9

4 Koletzko B, Poindexter B, Uauy R. Nutritional Care of Preterm Infants. Scientific Basis and Practical Guidelines. Karger 2014

5 Singhal A, Cole TJ, Fewtrell M, Lucas A. Breast milk feeding and lipoprotein profile in adolescents born preterm follow-up of a prospective randomised study. Lancet 2004; 363: 571-1578

6 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. Dietary Reference Values for Energy. SACN, London, 2011

7 Jones E, King J. Feeding and Nutrition in the Preterm Infant. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone 2005. Kamitsuka MD, Horton MK, Williams MA. The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis after introducing standardised feeding schedules for infants between 1,250g and 2,500g and less than 35 weeks of gestation. Paediatrics 2000; 105: 379-384

8 Bertino E, Di Nicola P, Giuliani F, Peila C, Cester E, Vassia C, Pirra A, Tonetto P, Coscia A. Benefits of human milk in preterm infant feeding. J PediatrNeonat Individual Med 2012; 1(1): 19-24

9 Embleton ND, Shamir R, Turck D, Phillip M (Eds). Early Nutrition and Later Outcomes in Preterm Infants. World Rev Nutr Diet 2013; 106: 26-32

10 Singhal, A, Cole TJ, Lucas A. Early nutrition in preterm infants and later blood pressure: two cohorts after randomised trials. Lancet 2001; 357(9254): 413-419

11 Lucas A, Morley R and Cole TJ (1992). Breastmilk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. Lancet 339: 261-264

12 Vohr B, Poindexter BB, Dusick AM, McKinley LT, Higgins RD, Langer JC, Poole WK. Persistent Beneficial Effects of Breast Milk Ingested in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit on Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants at 30 Months of Age. Pediatrics 2007; 120(4): 953-959

13 Vohr B, Poindexter BB, Dusick AM, McKinley LT, Wright LL, Langer JC, Poole WK. Beneficial Effects of Breast Milk in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit on the Developmental Outcome of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants at 18 Months of Age. Pediatrics 2006; 118(1): 115-123

14 Darlow BA, Graham PJ. Vitamin A supplementation to prevent mortality and short- and long-term morbidity in very low birthweight infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011; Issue 10

15 Mactier H, Mokaya MM, Farrell L and Edwards CA. Vitamin A provision for preterm infants: are we meeting current guidelines? Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition 2011; 96(4). F286-F289

16 Kositamongkol S, Suthutvoravut U, Chongviriyaphan N, Feungpean B, Nuntnarumit P. Vitamin A and E status in very low birth weight infants. J Perinatol. 2011; 31(7): 471-476

17 McCarthy R, McKenna M, D Oyefaso O et al. Vitamin D insufficiency in preterm very low birthweight infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2011; 52(Suppl 1 )E10

18 Brion LP, Bell EF, Raghuveer TS. Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2003;Issue 4

19 Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. UK-WHO Growth Charts - Fact Sheet 5: Plotting Preterm Infants. 2009. [Accessed June 2016]

20 Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (2011). UK-WHO Growth charts - Fact Sheet 7: Neonatal and Infant Close Monitoring Growth Chart (NICM). 3rd ed. [Accessed June 2016]

21 Ng PC. Erythromycin as a prokinetic agent in newborns - useful or doubtful. Commentary on Mansi Y et al. Randomised controlled trial of a high dose of oral erythromycin for the treatment of feeding intolerance in preterm infants (Neonatology, 2011, 100 290-4). Neonatology, 2011, 100 297-8

22 Denne SC. Energy expenditure in infants with pulmonary insufficiency: is there evidence for increased energy needs? J Nutr, 2001, 131 935S-7S

23 Griffin IJ, Cooke RJ, Reid MM et al. Iron nutritional status in preterm infants fed formulas fortified with iron. Arch Dis Child, 1999, 81 F45-9. 112S

24 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN). Minutes 2nd Meeting 27th September 2001, agenda item 5, paragraph 18

Page 16 - NUTRITIONAL GENOMICS: THE FUTURE OF PERSONALISED NUTRITION - LESSONS FROM THE FOOD4ME STUDY

1 Green ED, Watson JD, Collins FS (2015). Human Genome Project: Twenty-five years of big biology. Nature 526, 29-31

2 O'Donovan CB, Walsh MC, Gibney MJ et al (2015). Can metabotyping help deliver the promise of personalised nutrition? Proc Nutr Soc, 1-9

3 Gibney MJ, Walsh MC (2013). The future direction of personalised nutrition: my diet, my phenotype, my genes. Proc Nutr Soc 72, 219-225

4 Stewart-Knox BJ, Bunting BP, Gilpin S et al (2009). Attitudes toward genetic testing and personalised nutrition in a representative sample of European consumers. Br J Nutr 101, 982-989

5 Hamburg MA, Collins FS (2010). The path to personalised medicine. N Engl J Med 363, 301-304

6 Celis-Morales C, Livingstone KM, Marsaux CF et al (2015). Design and baseline characteristics of the Food4Me study: a web-based randomised controlled trial of personalised nutrition in seven European countries. Genes Nutr 10, 450

7 Rosal MC, Ebbeling CB, Lofgren I et al (2001). Facilitating dietary change: the patient-centered counseling model. J Am Diet Assoc 101, 332-341

8 Food4Me (2015). Personalised nutrition: paving a way to better population health. A White Paper from the Food4Me project

9 Chao S, Roberts JS, Marteau TM et al (2008). Health behaviour changes after genetic risk assessment for Alzheimer disease: The REVEAL Study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 22, 94-97

10 Wright JL, Sherriff JL, Dhaliwal SS et al (2011). Tailored, iterative, printed dietary feedback is as effective as group education in improving dietary behaviours: results from a randomised control trial in middle-aged adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 8, 43

11 Kroeze W, Oenema A, Campbell M et al (2008). The efficacy of web-based and print-delivered computer-tailored interventions to reduce fat intake: results of a randomised, controlled trial. J Nutr Educ Behav 40, 226-236

12 Sternfeld B, Block C, Quesenberry CP, Jr. et al (2009). Improving diet and physical activity with ALIVE: a worksite randomized trial. Am J Prev Med 36, 475-483

13 Stewart-Knox B, Kuznesof S, Robinson J et al (2013). Factors influencing European consumer uptake of personalised nutrition. Results of a qualitative analysis. Appetite 66, 67-74

14 Furst T, Connors M, Bisogni CA et al (1996). Food choice: a conceptual model of the process. Appetite 26, 247-265

15 Ryan NM, O'Donovan CB, Forster H et al (2015). New tools for personalised nutrition: The Food4Me project, Nutrition Bulletin Volume 40, Issue 2. Nutrition Bulletin.

16 Camp KM, Trujillo E (2014). Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutritional genomics. J Acad Nutr Diet 114, 299-312

Page 22 – FOCUS ON PKU: PAEDIATRIC

1 Dr Isabel Smith et al. Medical Research Council Working Party on Phenylketonuria. Phenylketonuria due to phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency: an unfolding story. The British Medical Journal, 1993; 306: 115-119

2 Narayanan D, Barski R, Henderson MJ, Luvai A, Chandrajay D, Stainforth C, Bradley J, Rogozinski H, Sharma R. Delayed diagnosis of phenylketonuria - a case report of two siblings. Ann Clin Biochem; 51(Pt 3): 406-8

3 Gonzalez MJ, Gutierrez AP, Gassio R, Fuste ME, Vilaseca MA, Campistol J. Neurological complications and behavioural problems in patients with phenylketonuria in a follow-up unit. Mol Genet Metab. 2011; 104 Suppl:S73-9

4 Dr Isabel Smith et al. Medical Research Council Working Party on Phenylketonuria. Recommendations on the dietary management of Phenylketonuria. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 1993; 68: 426-427

5 Clinical Paediatric Dietetics, 4th edition. Edited by Vanessa Shaw. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2015

6 A MacDonald, S Evans, B Cochrane and J Wildgoose. Weaning infants with Phenylketonuria: a review. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 2011; 25: 103-110

7 The Medical Advisory Panel of the National Society for Phenylketonuria (NSPKU). The Management of PKU, 2014

Page 29 - TRANSITIONING THE YOUNG ADULT WITH AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISEASE

1 British Inherited Metabolic Diseases Group. www.bimdg.org.uk/site/index.asp accessed on 6.3.2016

2 Department of Health (2006). National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services. Transition: getting it right for young people Improving the transition of young people with long-term conditions from children’s to adult health services

3 Royal College of Nursing (2013). Lost in transition: moving young people between child and adult health services. London, RCN

4 Royal College of Paediatrics & Child Health (2003). The Intercollegiate Working Party on Adolescent Health. Bridging the Gaps: Heath Care for Adolescents, London, RCPCH

5 Blum et al (1993). Transition from child-centred to adult healthcare systems for adolescents with chronic conditions. A position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. J Adolesc Health. 14(7): 570-6

6 Rosen et al (2003). Transition to adult healthcare for adolescents and young adults with chronic conditions: position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. J Adolesc Health. 33(4): 309-11

7 McManus et al (2008). Pediatric Perspectives and Practices on Transitioning Adolescents with Special Needs to Adult Health Care. Fact Sheet No 6. The National Alliance to Advance Adolescent Health

8 Viner R (1999). Transition from paediatric to adult care. Bridging the gaps or passing the buck? Arch Dis Child. 81:271-275

9 Crowley R et al (2011). Improving the transition between paediatric and adult healthcare: a systematic review. Arch Dis Child. 96: 548-553

10 Tallet A (2014). Transition: a qualitative study of young adults’ experiences of transferring from paediatric to adult healthcare services. Arch Dis Child. 99: Suppl 1 (G467)

11 Bemrich-Stolz CJ et al (2015). Exploring Adult Care Experiences and Barriers to Transition in Adult Patients with Sickle Cell Disease. Int J Hematol Ther 1(1). Doi: 10.15436/2381-1404.15.003. Epub 2015 Sep 6

12 Fegran L et al (2014). Adolescents’ and young adults’ transition experiences when transferring from paediatric to adult care: A qualitative metasynthesis. International Journal of Nursing Studies 51;123-135

13 Welsh Assembly Government. All Wales Inherited Metabolic Disease Standards for Children and Young People’s Specialised Healthcare Services. www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/Documents/355/Metabolic%20Eng%20web.pdf (accessed on 13.3.2016)

Page 35 - OBESITY IN ADULTS WITH PHENYLKETONURIA

1. Blau, N., van Spronsen, F., Levy, H. (2010) Phenylketonuria. Lancet. 376, 1417-1426.

2. Medical Research Council Working Party on Phenylketonuria (1993b). Recommendations on the dietary management of phenylketonuria. Arch Dis Child. 68, 426-427.

3. Gentile, J.K., TenHoedt, A.E., Bosch, A.M. (2010) Psychosocial aspects of PKU: hidden disabilities-a review. Mol Genet Metab. 99 Suppl 1:S64-7.

4. Christ, S.E., Huijbregts, S.C., de Sonnerville, L.M., White, D.A. (2010) Executive function in early treated Phenylketonuria: profile and underlying mechanisms. Mol Genet Metab. 99 Suppl 1:S22-32.

5. VanZutphen, K.H., Packman, W., Sporri, L., Needham, M.C., Morgan, C., Weisiger, K., Packman, S. (2007) Executive functioning in children and adolescents with Phenylketonuria. Clin Genet. 72(1),13-8.

6. ten Hoedt, A.E., de Sonneville L.M.J., Francois B., ter Horst N.M, Janssen M.C.H., Rubio-Gozalbo M.E., Wijburg F.A., Hollak C.E.M., Bosch A.M. (2011) High phenylalanine levels directly affect mood and sustained attention in adults with phenylketonuria: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. J Inherit Metab Dis. 34(1),165-71.

7. Bilder D., Burton B., Coon H., Leviton L., Ashworth J., Lundy B., Vespa H., Bakian A., Longo N. (2013) Psychiatric symptoms in adults with PKU. Mol Genet Metab 108, 155-160.

8. Dawson C., Murphy E., Maritz C., Chan H., Ellerton C., Carpenter R.H., Lachmann R. (2011). Dietary treatment of phenylketonuria: the effect of phenylalanine on reaction time. J Inherit Metab Dis 34(2): 449-54.

9. Anjema K., van Rijn M., Verkerk P.H., Burgerhof J.G., Heiner-Fokkema M.R., van Spronsen F.J. (2011) PKU: high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings. Mol Genet Metab. 104(3), 231-4

10. Modan-Moses, D., Vered, I., Schwartz, G., Anikster, Y., Abraham, S., Segev, R., Ori Efrati. (2007) Peak Bone Mass in patients with Phenylketonuria. J Inherit Metab Dis. 30,202-208.

11. Trefz F., Maillot F., Motzfeldt K., Schwarz M. (2011) Adult phenylketonuria outcome and management. Mol Genet Metab. 104, S 26-S30.

12. Robertson L.V., McStravick N., Ripley S., Weetch E., Donald S., Adam S., Micciche A., Boocock S. & MacDonald A. (2013) Body mass index in adult patients with diet-treated phenylketonuria. J Hum Nutr Diet. 26 (Suppl. 1), 1–6 doi:10.1111/jhn.12054

13. Rocha J., MacDonald A., Trefz F. (2013) Is overweight an issue in phenylketonuria? Mol Genet Metab 110, S18-S24.

14. Rocha J.C., van Spronsen F.J., Almeida M.F., Soares G., Quelhas D., Ramos E., Guimaraes J.T., Borges N. (2012) Dietary Treatment in phenylketonuria dies not lead to increased risk of obesity or metabolic syndrome. Mol Genet Metab. 107, 659-663.

15. Huemer, M., Huemer, C., Moslinger, D., Huter, D., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S. (2007) Growth and Body composition in children with classical phenylketonuria: results in 34 and review of literature. J Inherit Metab Dis. 30, 694-699.

16. Scaglioni, S., Verduci, E., Fiori, L., Lammardo, A. M., Rossi, S., Radaelli, G., Giovannini, M. (2004) Body Mass index rebound and overweight at 8 years of age in hyperphenylalaninaemic children. Acts Paediatr. 93,1596-1600.

17. Paci, S., Sala, F., Gasparri, M., Zuvadelli, J., Salvaticia, E., Minghetti, D., Riva, E. (2009) Body mass index in PKU patients versus paediatric population in the city of Milan. Mol Genet Metab. 98,1096-7192.

18. Williams R.A., Hooper A.J., Bell D.A., Mamotte C.D.S., Burnet J.R. (2015) Plasma cholesterol in adults with phenylketonuria. Chem Path. 47(2), 134-137.

19. Robertson L.V., Boocock S., Palermo L., Gerberhiwot T., MacDonald A. (2015).Dietary analysis of PKU diets in adults. Abstract (P-075) J Inherit Metab Dis 38 (Suppl 1): S35-S378

20. Das A.M., Goedecke K., Meyer U., Kanzelmeyer N., Koch S., Illsinger S., Lucke T., Hartmann H., Lange K., Lanfermann H., Hoy L., Ding X.Q. (2013). Dietary habits and metabolic control in adolescence and young adults with Phenylketonuria: self-imposed protein restriction may be harmful. JIMD reports DOI 10.1007/8904_2013_273

21. Schulz B. and Bremer H.J. (1995). Nutrient intake and food consumption of adolescence and young adults with phenylketonuria. Acta Paediatr 84:7743-8.

22. Scientific Advisory Commission on Nutrition (SACN) report on carbohydrates. (2015). London TSO.

23. Burrage L.C., McConnell, Haesler R., O’Riordan M.A., Sutton V.R., Kerr D.S., McCandless S.E. (2012). High prevalence of overweight and obesity in females with phenylketonuria. Mol Genet Metab. 107, 43-48.

Page 38 - PKU: A PARENT’S PERSPECTIVE

1 Kuvan is a form of BH4, the cofactor (or helper) of the PAH (phenylalanine hydroxylase) enzyme, which helps the enzyme break down Phe (www.kuvan.com)

2 Clinical Commissioning Policy: Sapropterin (Kuvan®) For Phenylketonuria: Use in Pregnancy April 2013 Reference: NHSCB/E12/p/a. www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/e12-p-a.pdf

More information

• NSPKU (2010). The role of Sapropterin (Kuvan) in the management of PKU in the NHS: considerations and prospects www.nspku.org/sites/default/files/publications/Kuvan.pdf

• National Centre for Pharmacoeconomics, Ireland. http://www.ncpe.ie/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/Sapropterin-Kuvan-summary1.pdf

Page 41 - THE KETOGENIC DIET: AN OVERVIEW

1. Wilder RM. (1921). The effects of ketonemia on the course of epilepsy. Mayo Clin Proc, 2, 307–308

2. Wood S (2015). Ketogenic therapy for adults with drug resistant epilepsy. NHD, 106, 28-30

3. Neal E (2015). Ketogenic Therapy; a treatment for epilepsy and beyond. Complete Nutrition, 15(4), 69-72

4. Hughes SD et al (2014). The ketogenic diet component decanoic acid increases mitochondrial citrate synthase and complex I activity in neuronal cell, J. Neruochem, 129, 426-433

5. Wheless JW (2008). History of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia, 49(8), 3-5

6. Kossoff et al (2003). Efficacy of the Atkins Diet as a treatment for intractable epilepsy. Neurology, 61, 1789-1791

7. Pfiefer HH & Thiele EA (2005). Low-glycemic-index treatment: a liberalized ketogenic diet for treatment of intractable epilepsy. Neurology, 13(65), 1810-1812

8. The Charlie Foundation (nd). Ketogenic therapy for brain tumour/cancer. Retrieved on 22/05/16 from www.charliefoundation.org/ketogenic-therapy/therapies-2/brain-tumor-cancer

9. Bryan J (2015). Raising Awareness about Ketogenic Diet Therapy for Epilepsy. Complete Nutrition, 15(3), 45-46

10. Neal et al (2008). The ketogenic diet for the treatment of childhood epilepsy; a randomised controlled trial. Lancel Neurol, 7(6), 500-506

11. Neal et al. (2009). A randomized trial of classical and medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diets in the treatment of childhood epilepsy. Epilepsia, 50(5), 1109–1117

12. Seyfried TN (2012). Metabolic Management of Cancer. In Cancer is a Metabolic Disease (291-354). New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc

13. Vander Heiden MG et al (2009). Understanding the Warburg Effect: The Metabolic Requirements of Cell Proliferation. Science, 324(5930), 1029-1033

14. Zuccoli G et al (2010). Management of glioblastoma multiforme using standard therapy together with a restricted ketogenic diet: Case Report. Nutrition & Metabolism, 7, 33

15. Seyfried TN et al (2012). Is the restricted ketogenic diet a viable alternative to the standard of care for managing malignant brain cancer? Epilepsy Research, 100, 310-326

16. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2012). Epilepsies: diagnosis and management. Clinical guidance CG137. Retrieved from www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg137

17. Stafstrom CE and Rho JM (2012). The ketogenic diet as a treatment paradigm for diverse neurological disorders. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 3(59), 1-8

18. Henderson ST et al (2009). Study of the ketogenic agent AC-1202 in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre trial. Nutr Metab (Lond), 6, 31

19. Kang HC et al (2007). Safe and Effective Use of the Ketogenic Diet in Children with Epilepsy and Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex Defects. Epilepsia, 48(1), 82-88

20. Wood S (2013). Ketogenic Diet Therapy; Epilepsy and brain tumours. Complete Nutrition, 13(5), 57-59

21. Seyfried TN (nd). The Restricted Ketogenic Diet: An Alternative Treatment Strategy for Glioblastoma Multiforme. Treatment Strategies - Oncology. Report. Retrieved on 24/05/16 from www.rsg1foundation.com/docs/patientresources/The%20Restricted%20Ketogenic%20Diet%20An%20Alternative.pdf

Page 46 - GYNAECOLOGICAL CANCER: DIETARY MANAGEMENT

1 Donald M, in Nutrition and Cancer, edited by C Shaw (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2011)

2 Khalid U et al. A modified inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire and the Vaizey Incontinence questionnaire are more sensitive measures of acute gastrointestinal toxicity during pelvic radiotherapy than RTOG grading. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 64 (5), 1432 (2006)

3 Muls A, Watson L, Shaw C and Andreyev HJN, Managing gastrointestinal symptoms after cancer treatment: a practical approach for gastroenterologists. Frontline Gastroenterology 4, 57 (2013)

4 West CM and Davidson SE, Measurement tools for gastrointestinal symptoms in radiation oncology. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care 3 (1), 36 (2009)

5 McGough C, Baldwin C, Frost G and Andreyev HJ. Role of nutritional intervention in patients treated with radiotherapy for pelvic malignancy. Br J Cancer 90 (12), 2278 (2004)

6 Abayomi JC, Kirwan J and Hackett AF. Coping mechanisms used by women in an attempt to avoid symptoms of chronic radiation enteritis. J Hum Nutr Diet 22 (4), 310 (2009)

7 Abayomi J, Kirwan J, Hackett A and Bagnall GA. Study to investigate women's experiences of radiation enteritis following radiotherapy for cervical cancer. J Hum Nutr Diet 18 (5), 353 (2005)

8 Kirwan JM et al. A systematic review of acute and late toxicity of concomitant chemoradiation for cervical cancer. Radiother Oncol 68 (3), 217 (2003)

9 Benton B et al. Can nurses manage gastrointestinal symptoms arising from pelvic radiation disease? Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 23 (8), 538 (2011)

10 Fuccio L, Guido A and Andreyev HJ. Management of intestinal complications in patients with pelvic radiation disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 10 (12), 1326 (2012)

11 DeWitt T and Hegazi R. Nutrition in pelvic radiation disease and inflammatory bowel disease: similarities and differences. Biomed Res Int 2014 (716579) (2014)

12 Andreyev HJ et al. Practice guidance on the management of acute and chronic gastrointestinal problems arising as a result of treatment for cancer. Gut 61 (2), 179 (2012)

13 Andreyev J et al. Guidance: The practical management of GI symptoms of pelvic radiation disease. Frontline Gastroenterology 6, 53 (2015)

14 Henson CC, Burden S, Davidson SE and Lal S. Nutritional interventions for reducing gastrointestinal toxicity in adults undergoing radical pelvic radiotherapy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013 (11), Art no: CD009896 (2013)

15 Andreyev HJ, Harris A and Smith L (2012). Information and resources to assist local adoption of the practice guidance on the management of acute and chronic GI problems arising as a result of treatment for cancer, Available at www.bsg.org.uk/sections/radiology-news/information-and-resources-to-assist-local-adoption-of-the-practice-guidance-on-the-management-of-acute-and-chronic-gi-problems-arising-as-a-result-of-treatment-for-cancer.html

16 Morris KAL and Haboubi NY. Pelvic radiation therapy: between delight and disaster. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 7 (11), 279 (2015)

Page 51 - MALNUTRITION IN THE ELDERLY

1 Elia M, Russell CA (Eds). Combating malnutrition; Recommendations for Action. A report from the Advisory Group on Malnutrition, led by BAPEN. Redditch: BAPEN, 2009

2 Elia M. The cost of malnutrition in England and potential cost savings from nutritional interventions. Malnutrition Action Group of BAPEN and the National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, 2015

3 Elia M. The cost of malnutrition in England, 2015. Ibid

4 Elia M. The cost of malnutrition in England, 2015. Ibid

5 NICE Clinical Guideline [CG32], Nutrition Support for Adults: oral nutrition support, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2006. Section 1, Footnote 11. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg32

6 NICE Clinical Guideline [CG32], ibid, Section 1.6.7

7 NICE Quality Standard [QS24] Nutrition support for adults. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2012. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs24/chapter/Quality-statement-2-Treatment

8 Managing adult malnutrition in the community - Including a pathway for the appropriate use of oral nutritional supplements (ONS), produced by a multi-professional consensus panel, May 2012, available at http://malnutritionpathway.co.uk/downloads/Managing_Malnutrition.pdf

9 Stratton RJ, Green C and Elia M. Disease-related malnutrition; an evidence-based approach to treatment. Oxford: CABI, 2003

10 EU Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/128 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 609/2013

11 Managing Adult Malnutrition in the Community pathway. http://malnutritionpathway.co.uk/downloads/Managing_Malnutrition.pdf (accessed 8 January 2016)

12 NHS England Guidance on Commissioning Excellent Nutrition and Hydration 2015-2018. /www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/nut-hyd-guid.pdf (accessed 8 January 2016)

13 Elia M. The cost of malnutrition in England, 2015. Ibid

14 NICE Cost Saving Guidance on Nutrition support in adults [QS24], 2012

15 Elia M. The cost of malnutrition in England, 2015. Ibid

16 Elia M. The cost of malnutrition in England, 2015. Ibid

17 Weekes CE et al. A review of the evidence for the impact of improving nutritional care on nutritional and clinical outcomes and cost, Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 2009; 22 (4): 324-335

18 Weekes CE et al. 2009. Ibid

19 Elia M et al. The cost of disease-related malnutrition in the UK and economic considerations for the use of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in adults. Health Economic Report on Malnutrition in the UK. BAPEN: 2012. www.bapen.org.uk/professionals/publications-and-resources/bapen-reports/the-cost-of-disease-related-malnutrition-in-the-uk

20 Elia M et al. A systematic review of the cost and cost effectiveness of using standard oral nutritional supplements in community and care home settings. Clin Nutr 2016; 35 (1); 125-37

21 Elia M et al. A systematic review of the cost and cost effectiveness of using standard oral nutritional supplements in the hospital setting. Clin Nutr 2016; 35 (2) 370-80

22 Elia M et al. A systematic review of the cost and cost effectiveness of using standard oral nutritional supplements in community and care home settings. Clin Nutr 2016; 35 (1); 125-37