April 19: Issue 143

References Issue 143

Page 11 - LIVER DISEASE AND DIET by Rebecca Gasche
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4 PENG, Section 16, Liver disease and nutrition support in Adults
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8 Figueiredo FA, Dickson ER, Pasha TM, Porayko MK, Therneau TM, Malinchoc M et al. Utility of standard nutritional parameters in detecting body cell mass depletion in patients with end‐stage liver disease. Liver Transpl 2000; 6: 575-581
9 Riordan SM, Williams R. Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. New England Journal of Medicine 1997; 337: 473-479
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13 Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine JE et al. The diagnosis and management of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guideline by the American Gastroenterological Association, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and American College of Gastroenterology. Gastroenterology 2012; 142: 1592-1609
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15 Fan J and hai-Xia C (2013). Role of diet and nutritional management in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology; 28 (Suppl.4) 81-87
16 Rocha R, Cotrim HP, Carvalo FM. Body mass index and waist circumference in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Journal of Human Nutrition and Diet 2005; 18: 365-370
17 Ekstedt M, Lennart E, Franzen LE et al. Long-term follow up of patients with NAFLD. Hepatology 2006; 44(4): 865-873
18 Huang MA, Greenson JK, Chao C et al. One-year intense nutritional counselling results in histological improvement in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot study. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2005:100(5): 1072-1081
19 Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine J. The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice guidelines by the American Gastroenterological Association, American Association for the study of Liver Disease and American college of Gastroenterology. Gastroenterology. 2012; 142: 1592-1609
20 Ratziu V, Bellentani S, Cortez-Pinto H, Day C, Marchesini G. A position statement of NAFLD/NASH based on the EASL 2009 special conference. Journal of Hepatology. 2010; 53: 372-384

Page 15 IMPROVING ONS UPTAKE ON THE WARDS by Harriet Rose
1 Gandy J (2014). Manual of Dietetic Practice; chp 6.3; Oral Nutritional Support
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5 Guidelines for the Appropriate Use of Oral Nutrition Supplements in Adults in Primary Care (2017). Available at: www.nelft.nhs.uk/download.cfm?doc=docm93jijm4n1496.pdf&ver=1965 Last accessed: 05/03/2019
6 Hubbard GP et al (2012). A systematic review of compliance to oral nutritional supplements. Clinical Nutrition
7 Dera M and Woodham D (2016). Care of the older person: treating malnutrition in the community: factors contributing to malnutrition. Br. J. Community Nurs

Page 19 GOAT MILK: AN OVERVIEW OF ITS ROLE IN THE HUMAN DIET by Alice Fletcher
1 McGee H (2004). McGee on food and cooking: An encyclopedia of kitchen science, history and culture. London: Hodder & Stoughton
2 Retrieved from www.vegansociety.com/news/media/statistics accessed on the 22/1/19
3 www.tesco.com/groceries/en-GB/shop/fresh-food/milk-butter-and-eggs/dairy-alternatives/goat’s-milk accessed on the 22/1/19
4 Composition of foods integrated dataset (CoFID). Published 25 March 2015, Public Health England retrieved from: www.gov.uk/government/publications/composition-of-foods-integrated-dataset-cofid
5 Barrionuevo M, Aliaga IL, Alférez MJ, Mesa E, Nestáres T and Campos MS (2003). Beneficial effect of goat milk on bioavailability of copper, zinc and selenium in rats. Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry, 59(2), 111-118. doi:10.1007/bf03179876
6 Attaie R and Richter RL (2000). Size distribution of fat globules in goat milk. J Dairy Sci 83: 940-944
7 Gamble JA, Ellis NR, Besley AK (1939) Composition and properties of goat’s milk as compared with cow’s milk. USDA Technical Bulletin No. 671, https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/CAT86200665/PDF
8 Almaas H, Cases A, Devold TG, Holm H, Langsrud T, Aabakken L., Vegarud GE (2006). In vitro digestion of bovine and caprine milk by human gastric and duodenal enzymes. International Dairy Journal, 16(9), 961-968. doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2005.10.029
9 Hodgkinson AJ, Wallace OA, Boggs I, Broadhurst M and Prosser CG (2018). Gastric digestion of cow and goat milk: Impact of infant and young child in vitro digestion conditions. Food Chemistry, 245, 275-281. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.10.028
10 Maathuis A, Havenaar R, He T, Bellmann S. (2017). Protein Digestion and Quality of Goat and Cow Milk Infant Formula and Human Milk Under Simulated Infant Conditions. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, 65(6), 661-666
11 Kiskini A and Difilippo E (2013). Oligosaccharides in goat milk: structure, health effects and isolation. Cell Mol Biol 59: 25-30
12 Zivkovic AM, Barile D (2011). Bovine Milk as a Source of Functional Oligosaccharides for Improving Human Health. Advances in Nutrition, 2(3), 284-289. doi:10.3945/an.111.000455
13 Lara-Villoslada F, Debras E, Nieto A, Concha A, Gálvez J, López-Huertas E et al. Oligosaccharides isolated from goat milk reduce intestinal inflammation in a rat model of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Clin Nutr. 2006;2 5: 477-488. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2005.11.004
14 Daddaoua A, Puerta V, Requena P, Martínez-Férez A, Guadix E, de Medina FS et al. Goat milk oligosaccharides are anti-inflammatory in rats with hapten-induced colitis. J Nutr. 2006;136: 672-676. doi:136/3/672
15 Araújo D, Guerra G, Pintado M, Sousa Y, Algieri F, Rodriguez-Nogales A, Araújo RF, Gálvez J, Queiroga R, Rodriguez-Cabezas, ME (2017). Intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of goat whey on DNBS-induced colitis in mice. PloS one, 12(9), e0185382. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0185382
16 de Assis POA, Guerra GCB, Araújo DF de S, de Araújo Júnior RF, Machado TADG, de Araújo AA et al. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of goat milk and goat yoghurt in the acetic acid model of rat colitis. Int Dairy J. 2016; 56: 45-054. doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2015.11.002
17 www.nhs.uk/conditions/atopic-eczema/ - NHS overview of atopic dermatitis accessed 22/1/19
18 Johnston G., Bilbao R, Graham-Brown R (2004). The use of dietary manipulation by parents of children with atopic dermatitis. British Journal of Dermatology,150(6), 1186-1189. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2004.05888.x
19 Vita D, Passalacqua G, Pasquale GD, Caminiti L, Crisafulli G, Rulli I, Pajno GB (2007). Ass milk in children with atopic dermatitis and cow’s milk allergy: Crossover comparison with goat’s milk. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology,18(7), 594-598. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2007.00567.x
20 World Allergy Organisation (WAO). Diagnosis and Rationale for Action against Cow’s Milk Allergy (DRAcow’s milkA) Guidelines. (2010).Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 21, 1-125. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2010.01068.x
21 D Luyt, H Ball, N Makwana, MR Green, K Bravin, SM Nasser and AT Clark (2014). BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of cow’s milk allergy, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 44, 642-672 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, doi: 10.1111/cea.12302
22 https://www.unicef.org.uk/babyfriendly/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2008/02/start4life_guide_to_bottle_-feeding.pdf
23 Pessler F, Nejat M (2004). Anaphylactic reaction to goat’s milk in a cow’s milk allergic infant. Pediatric Allergy Immunology. 15(2):183-5
24 Infante Pina D, Tormo Carnice R, Conde Zandueta M (2003). Use of goat's milk in patients with cow's milk allergy, Anales de Pediatría, 59(2): 138-42
25 Restani P et al (1999). Cross-reactivity between milk proteins from different animal species. Clin Exp Allergy, 29: 997-1004
26 Ehlayel M, Bener A, Hazeima KA, Al-Mesaifri F (2011). Camel Milk Is a Safer Choice than Goat Milk for Feeding Children with Cow Milk Allergy. ISRN Allergy, 2011, 1-5. doi:10.5402/2011/391641
27 Meihong Xu, Yibin Wang, Zhiyong Dai, Yanchun Zhang, Yong Li and Junbo Wang (2015). Comparison of growth and nutritional status in infants receiving goat milk–based formula and cow milk–based formula: a randomised, double-blind study, Food & Nutrition Research, 59:1, DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v59.28613
28 EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies (2004). Scientific opinion on the suitability of goat milk protein as a source of protein in infant formulae and in follow-on formulae. EFSA J 30, 1-15
29 https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2603
Scientific Opinion on the suitability of goat milk protein as a source of protein in infant formulae and in follow-on formulae (2012). EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
30 Randomised, double-blind comparison of growth in infants receiving goat milk formula versus cow milk infant formula. Grant C, Rotherham B, Sharpe S, Scragg R, Thompson J, Andrews J, Wall C, Murphy J, Lowry D. J Paediatr Child Health. 2005 Nov; 41(11):564-8
31 Zhou J, Sullivan T, Gibson R and Makrides M (2010). A randomised trial to compare growth rates and nutritional status of infants fed formula based on goat milk or cow milk (TIGGA)
32 Han Y, Chang EY, Kim J, Ahn K, Kim HY, Hwang EM, Lowry D, Prosser C, Lee SI (2011). Association of infant feeding practices in the general population with infant growth and stool characteristics. Nutrition research and practice, 5(4), 308-12
33 www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/types-of-infant-formula/ - accessed 22/1/19
34 Harrison M, Hilliard R, Lavine E (2007). Case 2: You look like you've seen a goat. Paediatrics and child health, 12(5), 389-91
35 Basnet S, Schneider M, Gazit A, Mander G, Doctor A (2010). Fresh goat's milk for infants: myths and realities-a review. Pediatrics. 125(4): e973-7

Page 24 SPECIALIST FORMULA MILKS by Martha Hughes
1 World Health Organisation (2016). Infant and young child feeding. Available from: www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs342/en/
2 Rolfes W (2016). Understanding Nutrition. 4th edition. Canada. p 512
3 Infant formula and follow-on formula are regulated under Regulation (EU) 609/2013. However, this will be repelled by the European Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/127, which came into force in February 2016 and will apply from February 2020 (or February 2021 for protein hydrolysate based formulae)
4 Infant and Young Child Feeding: Model. Chapter for Textbooks for Medical Students and Allied Health Professionals. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2009. SESSION 1. The importance of infant and young child feeding and recommended practices. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK148967/
5 These products are regulated by Regulation (EU) No 609/2013, which will be repelled by Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/128 which came into force in February 2016, and applies from 22 February 2020 for infant FSMPs
6 Winstone R (2018). An update on cow's milk protein allergy and best practice in primary care. British Journal of Family Medicine. Available at: www.bjfm.co.uk/an-update-on-cows-milk-protein-allergy-and-best-practice-in-primary-care
7 Ludman S, Shah N and Fox A (2013). Managing cows' milk allergy in children (clinical review). BMJ 347, f5424
8 Baker G, Meyer R and Reeves L (2014). Food fact sheet: suitable milks for children with cow's milk allergy. The British Diabetic Association. /www.bda.uk.com/foodfacts/home#medical_conditions
9 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2015). Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy in Children. https://cks.nice.org.uk/cows-milk-protein-allergy-in-children#!scenario:1
10 Venter C, Brown T, Meyer R et al (2018). Better recognition, diagnosis and management of non-IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy in infancy: iMAP - an international interpretation of the MAP (Milk Allergy in Primary Care) guideline. Clinical and Translational Allergy 8:4
11 Agostoni C, Buonocore G, Carnielli VP et al (2010). Enteral Nutrient Supply for Preterm Infants: Commentary from the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition JPGN. 50:85-91
12 Lozinsky AC, Meyer R, Anagnostou K et al (2015). Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy from Diagnosis to Management: A Very Different Journey for General Practitioners and Parents. Children; 2:317-329

Page 28 NUTRITION AND WELLBEING IN THE WORKPLACE by Evelyn Toner
1 UK labour market: February 2019, Office for National Statistics www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/employmentandemployeetypes/bulletins/uklabourmarket/february2019#summary-of-latest-labour-market-statistics
2 Workplace policy and management practices to improve the health and wellbeing of employees, NICE 2015 www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng13.
3 NHS Five Year Forward View, NHS England 2014 www.england.nhs.uk/ourwork/futurenhs/
4 BDA Work Ready Programme: Supporting healthier working lives through dietitian-led wellness initiatives, BDA 2015 www.bdaworkready.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/White-Paperuploaded.pdf
5 Long Term Conditions. Compendium of Information: Third Edition, Department of Health 2012
6 NICE (2015). Workplace health: Costs and savings. Available from: http://publication.nice.org.uk/work¬place-health-lgb2/costs-and-savings
7 Mintel Breakfast Eating Habits, April 2015
8 Chaplin K and Smith AP. Breakfast and snacks: associations with cognitive failures, minor injuries, accidents and stress. Nutrients; 2011 3(5): 515-28
9 Mintel Lunch and Sandwich Report, May 2011
10 Consumer Snacking – UK, Mintel, March 2015
11 Ocean L, Howley P, Ensor J (2019). Lettuce be happy: A longitudinal UK study on the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and wellbeing. Social Science & Medicine; 222:335-345
12 Adan A (2012). Cognitive performance and dehydration. J Am Coll Nutr; 31 (2): 71-78
13 Streitbürger DP, Möller HE, Tittgemeyer M (2012). Investigating structural brain changes of dehydration using voxel-based morphometry. PLoS One; 7(8): e44195
14 Watson P, Whale A, Mears SA et al (2015). Mild hypohydration increases the frequency of driver errors during a prolonged monotonous driving task. Physiology & Behaviour; 147: 313-18
15 El-Sharkawy A, Bragg D, Watson P, Neal K, Sahota O, Maughan R, Lobo D (2016). Hydration amongst nurses and doctors on-call (the HANDS on prospective cohort study). Clinical Nutrition; 35(4): 935-942
16 Kjøllesdal MR, Holmboe-Ottesen G, Wandel M (2011). Frequent use of staff canteens is associated with unhealthy dietary habits and obesity in a Norwegian adult population. Public Health Nutr; 14(1):133-41
17 Healthier Vending – Criteria for ‘Better Choice’ & ‘Healthier Choice’ products, BDA 2018 www.bdaworkready.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Healthy-Vending-Report_FINAL-OCTOBER-2018.pdf
18 Choice architecture interventions to improve diet and/or dietary behaviour by Healthcare staff in high-income countries: a systematic review’ in BMJ Open, published on 24th January 2019, DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023687. http://tracking.warwick.ac.uk/tracking/click?d=-rSbB4b2-EpfsPcp3GpArimgO2l0NujX8q_ry3ueRyX-F1iHAmz1fMqa11H-ckGsXB_sK1dofEuIH3jfjc9ElTnbfVJcSM0rx361EIic_8k3VNCYgQkNjrQ90nr2tJrME-fa-sdUGRZ9e2Zbv3k4pOk1


Page 31 THE LOW-FODMAP DIET: AN OVERVIEW OF ITS DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS by Jessica English
1 McKenzie Y, Lomer M et al. UK evidence-based practice guidelines for the dietetic management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults (2012), British Dietetic Association – Professional Guideline
2 McKenzie Y, Lomer M et al. British Dietetic Association systematic review and evidence-based practice guidelines for the dietary management of irritable bowel syndrome in adults (2016 update), J Hum Nutr Diet. 2016 Oct; 29 (5): 549-75
3 Brandt LJ, Chey WD, Foxx-Orenstein AE, Schiller LR, Schoenfeld PS, Spiegel BM, Talley NJ, Quigley EM. An evidence-based position statement on the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Jan; 104 Suppl 1: S1-35
4 Rosario Cuomo, Paolo Andreozzi, Francesco Paolo Zito, Valentina Passananti, Giovanni De Carlo and Giovanni Sarnelli. Irritable bowel syndrome and food interaction, World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jul 21; 20(27): 8837-8845
5 Gibson PR. History of the low-FODMAP diet. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Mar; 32 Suppl 1:5-7
6 Gibson PR, Shepherd SJ. Personal view: food for thought - western lifestyle and susceptibility to Crohn's disease. The FODMAP hypothesis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Jun 15; 21 (12):1399-409
7 Shepherd SJ, Gibson PR. Fructose malabsorption and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: guidelines for effective dietary management. J Am Diet Assoc.2006;106: 1631-9
8 Shepherd SJ, Parker FC, Muir JG, Gibson PR. Dietary triggers of abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: randomized placebo-controlled evidence. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Jul; 6(7): 765-71
9 Staudacher HM, Whelan K, Irving PM, Lomer MC. Comparison of symptom response following advice for a diet low in fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs) versus standard dietary advice in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2011; 24(5): 487-495
10 Eswaran SL, Chey WD, Han-Markey T, Ball S, Jackson K. A randomised controlled trial comparing the low-FODMAP diet vs modified NICE guidelines in US adults with IBS-D. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016; 111(12): 1824-1832
11 Böhn L, Störsrud S, Liljebo T et al Diet low in FODMAPs reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome as well as traditional dietary advice: a randomised controlled trial. Gastroenterology. 2015; 149(6): 1399-1407
12 Schumann D, Langhorst J, Dobos G, Cramer H. Randomised clinical trial: yoga vs a low-FODMAP diet in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Jan; 47(2): 203-211
13 Jose-Walter Huaman et al., Effects of Prebiotics vs a Diet Low in FODMAPs in Patients With Functional Gut Disorders. Gastroenterology. 2018 Oct;155(4):1004-1007.
14 Wilson, B., et al., Mo1049 (abstract only) - Low Fodmap Diet & Prebiotic β-Galactooligosaccharides Improve Irritable Bowel Syndrome with no Impact on α-Diversity and Response to Low Fodmap Diet is Predicted by Urine and Fecal Metabolites: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Gastroenterology 154(6):S-683 · May 2018
15 Moore JS et al. Endometriosis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: Specific symptomatic and demographic profile and response to the low-FODMAP diet. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 2017. 57(2): p 201-205
16 Heidi M Staudacher, Miranda C E Lomer, Jacqueline L Anderson, Jacqueline S Barrett, Jane G Muir, Peter M Irving, Kevin Whelan. Fermentable Carbohydrate Restriction Reduces Luminal Bifidobacteria and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 142, Issue 8, 1 August 2012, p 1510-1518
17 Halmos EP, Christophersen CT, Bird AR, Shepherd SJ, Gibson PR, Muir JG. Diets that differ in their FODMAP content alter the colonic luminal microenvironment. Gut. 2015 Jan; 64(1): 93-100
18 Public Health England. The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition recommendations on carbohydrates, including sugars and fibre. Published 17 July 2015. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/445503/SACN_Carbohydrates_and_Health.pdf (accessed 31/01/2019)

Page 36 ADULT ONSET FOOD ALLERGIES by Farihah Choudhury
1a Lowdon J. Food Allergy Examined: where are we now. Network Health Digest; October 2018 issue 138, p15
1b Fujimura KE, Lynch SV (2015). Microbiota in allergy and asthma and the emerging relationship with the gut microbiome. Cell host & microbe, 17(5): 592-602
2 Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Szajewska H and Lack G (2017). Food allergy and the gut. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 14: 241-257
3 Rachid R, Chatila TA (2016). The role of the gut microbiota in food allergy. Curr Opin Pediatr. 28(6): 748-753
4 The Independent (2018). 'Daddy, help me, I can't breathe': Teenage girl dies after allergic reaction to Pret a Manger sandwich, inquest heard. Available: www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/pret-a-manger-sandwich-death-allergic-reaction-inquest-teenager-natasha-ednan-laperouse-british-a8552546.html [Accessed: 7/2/2019]
5 Carter CA and Frischmeyer-Guerrerio PA (2018). The Genetics of Food Allergy. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 18:2
6 Martino DJ, Saffery R, Allen KJ, Prescott SL (2016). Epigenetic modifications: mechanisms of disease and biomarkers of food allergy. Current Opinion in Immunology, 42:9-15
7 Lee SY, Chang YS and Cho SH (2013). Allergic diseases and air pollution. Asia Pacific allergy, 3(3): 145-54
8 Castelain M (2011). Globalisation and allergy. European journal of dermatology 21: 472-8
9 The Guardian (2017). Can adults develop food allergies? Available: www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2017/aug/21/can-adults-develop-food-allergies [Accessed: 7/2/2019]
10 Rona et al (2007). Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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13 Hill DA, Grundmeier RW, Ram G, Spergel JM (2016). The epidemiologic characteristics of healthcare provider-diagnosed eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergy in children: a retrospective cohort study. BMC pediatrics, 16, 133
14 Allergy UK (2018). Available: www.allergyuk.org/information-and-advice/conditions-and-symptoms/35-eczema-dermatitis [Accessed: 7/2/2019]
15 Hompes S, Dölle S, Grünhagen J, Grabenhenrich L and Worm M (2013). Elicitors and co-factors in food-induced anaphylaxis in adults. Clinical and translational allergy, 3(1), 38
16 Versluis A, Os-Medendorp HV, Kruizinga A, Michelsen A, Blom M, Houben G, Knulst A (2015). The influence of cofactors on allergic reactions to food. Clinical and Translational Allergy 5 (Suppl 3): 51
17 FSA Guidelines (2018). Available: www.food.gov.uk/safety-hygiene/food-allergy-and-intolerance [Accessed: 7/2/2019]
18 Turnbull JL, Adams HN, Gorard DA (2015). Review article: the diagnosis and management of food allergy and food intolerances. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 41: 3-25
19 Nagnostou K et al (2014). The Lancet 383: 1297-1304
20 Yael Gernez, Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn (2017). Immunotherapy for Food Allergy: Are We There Yet? The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice 5 (2): 250-272
21 Mullins RJ et al (2009). Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 103: 488-495

Page 39 DYSPHAGIA: IDDSI IMPLEMENTATION IN HIGHLAND CARE HOMES by Evelyn Newman
1 www.IDDSI.org
2 www.thenacc.co.uk
3 http://hub.careinspectorate.com/improvement/spotlight-on-improvement-for-adults-and-older-people/spotlight-on-food-and-fluid/adults-and-older-people/
4 www.oakhouse-kitchen.com
5 www.nhshighland.scot.nhs.uk/Publications/Documents/Newsletters/nutrition%20news%20spring%202019.pdf