Aug/Sept 19: Issue 147

Page 8 ULTRA-PROCESSED FOODS: NEWS HEADLINES AND NUTRITION by Emma Berry
1 Rico-Campà Anaïs, Martínez-González Miguel A, Alvarez-Alvarez Ismael, Mendonça Raquel de Deus, de la Fuente-Arrillaga Carmen, Gómez-Donoso Clara et al. Association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and all-cause mortality: SUN prospective cohort study BMJ 2019; 365 :l1949
2 BBC. Ultra-processed food linked to early death (2019). Available at: www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-48446924. Accessed on 8th June 2019
3 The Guardian. Heavily processed food like ready meals and ice-cream linked to early death (2019). Available at: www.theguardian.com/science/2019/may/29/studies-link-too-much-heavily-processed-food-to-early-death. Accessed 8th June 2019
4 Cancer Research UK. Process meat and cancer – what you need to know (2015). Available at: https://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/10/26/processed-meat-and-cancer-what-you-need-to-know/. Accessed on 9th June 2019
5 BBC. Soft drink sugar tax starts, but will it work? (2018). Available at: www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-43659124. Accessed on 8th June 2019
6 BBC. Sugar tax: How will it work? (2016). Available at: www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-35824071. Accessed on 8th June 2019
7 The Food Foundation (2018). Affordability of the UK’s Eatwell Guide. Available at: https://foodfoundation.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Affordability-of-the-Eatwell-Guide_Final_Web-Version.pdf. Accessed on 8th June 2019
8 The Social Market Foundation (2018). What are the barriers to eating healthily in the UK? Available at: www.smf.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/What-are-the-barriers-to-eating-healthy-in-the-UK.pdf. Accessed on 9th June 2019
9 Kuijer GR, Kerr JA, Marshall EM (2014). Associating a prototypical forbidden food item with guilt or celebration: Relationships with indicators of (un)healthy eating and the moderating role of stress and depressive symptoms. Psychology & health. 30. 1-30. 10.1080/08870446.2014.960414
10 Tylka Tracy L, Calogero Rachel M and Danielsdottir S (2015). Is intuitive eating the same as flexible dietary control? Their links to each other and wellbeing could provide an answer. Appetite, 95, pp 166-175. ISSN 0195-6663
11 BEAT Eating Disorders (2017). Orthorexia. Available at: www.beateatingdisorders.org.uk/types/orthorexia. Accessed on 9th June 2019
12 National Eating Disorders Association (2018). Orthorexia. Available at: /www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/learn/by-eating-disorder/other/orthorexia. Accessed on 9th June 2019
13 Bacon L, Stern JS, van Loan MD, Keim NL (2005). Size Acceptance and Intuitive Eating Improve Health for Obese, Female Chronic Dieters. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 105 (6): 929-936
14 Anderson LM, Reilly EE, Schaumberg K et al. Eat Weight Disord (2016). 21: 83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-015-0210-3

Page 11 THE CHALLENGES OF EATING DISORDER RECOVERY by Oana Oancea
1 British Dietetic Association Mental Health Group (2017). Care coordinator/Lead Professional Guidance for Dietitians
2 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2017). Eating Disorders: Core Interventions in the treatment and management of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and related eating disorders .London
3 Mehler PS and Anderson AE (2010). Eating Disorder: A guide to medical care and complications. London: The John Hopkins University Press
4 American Psychiatric Association (2013). 5th Edition: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association
5 BMC Psychiatry (2016). Rate, timing and predictors of relapse in patients with anorexia nervosa following a relapse prevention program: a cohort study

Page 15 EATING DISORDERS: THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF DIETARY ADVICE by Nikki Brierley
1 NICE (2017). Eating Disorder: recognition and Treatment NG69: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng69
2 BEAT: www.beateatingdisorders.org.uk/
3 British Dietetic Association: www.bda.uk.com/foodfacts/WhatIsDietitian.pdf
4 Health and Care Professionals Council (HCPC): www.hcpc-uk.org/standards/standards-of-proficiency/dietitians/

Page 21 FOLLOW-ON FORMULA by Paula Hallam RD
1 Department of Health (2013). Guidance Notes on the Infant Formula and Follow-on Formula Regulations 2007 (as amended). www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/204314/Infant_formula_guidance_2013_-_final_6_March.pdf
2 Infant milks in the UK: a practical guide for health professionals. First Steps Nutrition Trust. Interim report, April 2019 https://static1.squarespace.com/static/59f75004f09ca48694070f3b/t/5cb65cc5ee6eb0179dfca0cc/1555455185925/Infant_Milks_April_2019.pdf
3 Stoltzfus RJ (2003). Iron deficiency: global prevalence and consequences. Food Nutr Bull. 24(4 Suppl): S99
4 How growth due to infant nutrition influences obesity and later disease risk. Brigitte Brands, Hans Demmelmair, Berthold Koletzko for the Early Nutrition Project. Dr von Hauner Children’s Hospital, University of Munich Medical Centre, Munich, Germany. Acta Paediatrica 2014 103, p 578-585
5 EFSA (2014). Scientific opinion on the composition of infant and follow-on formulae. Parma, Italy: European Food Safety Authority. Available at www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/3760
6 Information concerning the use and marketing of follow-up formula www.who.int/nutrition/topics/WHO_brief_fufandcode_post_17July.pdf
7 McFadden A, Mason F, Baker J, Begin F, Dykes F, Grummer-Strawn L, Kenney-Muir N, Whitford H, Zehner E, Renfrew MJ (2016). Spotlight on infant formula: coordinated global action needed. Lancet 387(10017): 413-5
8 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition, United Kingdom, Infant Feeding Survey 2005: A commentary on infant feeding practices in the UK, position statement by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition, 2008
9 Nina J Berry, Sandra Jones, Don Iverson. It’s all formula to me: women’s understandings of toddler milk ads. Breastfeeding Review, 2010, Vol 18, No 1,
10 Sobel H et al. Is unimpeded marketing for breast milk substitutes responsible for the decline in breastfeeding in the Philippines? An exploratory survey and focus group analysis. Social Sciences & Medicine 2011; 73: 1445-1448
11 M intzes B. Regulation of formula advertising in the Philippines and promotion and protection of breastfeeding: A commentary on Sobel, Iellamo, Raya, Padilla, OliveĢ and Nyunt-U. Social Sciences & Medicine 2011; 73: 1449-1451
12 McAndrew F, Thompson J, Fellows L, Large A, Speed M and Renfrew MJ for Health and Social Care Information Centre (2012). Infant Feeding Survey 2010. http://content.digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PuB08694/Infant-Feeding-Survey-2010-Consolidated-Report.pdf
13 Cattaneo A et al (2015). Advertisements of follow-on formula and their perception by pregnant women and mothers in Italy. Arch Dis Child 2015 April; 100(4): 323-8
14 SACN (2010). Iron and Health. Available online at: www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/339309/SACN_Iron_and_Health_Report.pdf
15 SACN (2018). Feeding in the first year of life. Available online at: www.gov.uk/government/publications/sacn-report-on-feeding-in-the-first-year-of-life
16 Thorisdottir AV, Ramel A, Palsson GI, Tomassson H and Thorsdottir I (2013). Iron status of one-year-olds and association with breast milk, cow’s milk or formula in late infancy. European Journal of Nutrition, 52(6 ) 1661-1668
17 Morley R, Abbott R, Fairweather-Tait S, MacFadyen U, Stephenson T and Lucas A (1999). Iron fortified follow-on formula from nine to 18 months improves iron status but not development or growth: a randomised trial. Archives of disease in childhood, 81(3), p 247-252
18 Aggett P, Agostoni C, Axelsson I et al (2002a). Iron metabolism and requirements in early childhood: do we know enough? A commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 34, 337-345
19 Lozoff B, Castillo, M, Clark K, Smith J (2011). Iron-fortified versus low-iron infant formula: developmental outcome at 10 years. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. Published online November 7, 2011. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.197
20 www.infantfeedingappg.uk/cost-of-infant-formula-negatively-impacting-family-budgets-says-parliamentary-inquiry/

Page 25 PRE-OPERATIVE NUTRITION by Harriet Smith RD
1 Desborough JP (2000). The stress response to trauma and surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia [online]
2 Public Health England (2014). NDNS: results from Years 1 to 4 (combined). Available at: www.gov.uk/government/statistics/national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-results-from-years-1-to-4-combined-of-the-rolling-programme-for-2008-and-2009-to-2011-and-2012
3 Public Health England (2016) The Eatwell Guide. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-eatwell-guide
4 NHS (2018) Fish and Shellfish. Available at: www.nhs.uk/live-well/eat-well/fish-and-shellfish-nutrition/
5 Paddon-Jones D and Rasmussen BB (2009). Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
6 Deutz NEP et al (2014). Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: Recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group. Clinical Nutrition [online]
7 Moghadamyeghaneh Z et al (2014). Preoperative Dehydration Increases Risk of Postoperative Acute Renal Failure in Colon and Rectal Surgery. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery [online]
8 Sherf Dagan S et al (2017). Nutritional Recommendations for Adult Bariatric Surgery Patients: Clinical Practice. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal [online]
9 JBDS-IP (2016). Management of adults with diabetes undergoing surgery and elective procedures: improving standards. [Online]. Available at: www.diabetes.org.uk/professionals/position-statements-reports/specialist-care-for-children-and-adults-and-complications/management-of-adults-with-diabetes-undergoing-surgery-and-elective-procedures-improving-standards
10 Lidder PG et al (2007). Pre-operative oral iron supplementation reduces blood transfusion in colorectal surgery – A prospective, randomised, controlled trial. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England [online]
11 Andrews CM et al (1997). Iron pre-load for major joint replacement. Transfusion Medicine [online]
12 Public Health England (2016). SACN vitamin D and health report. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/publications/sacn-vitamin-d-and-health-report
13 Jensen JE et al (1982). Nutrition in orthopaedic surgery. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery – Series A [online]
14 Abebe W (2002). Herbal medication: Potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
15 Cross MB et al (2014). Evaluation of malnutrition in orthopaedic surgery. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons [online]
16 BAPEN. Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool. Available at: www.bapen.org.uk/pdfs/must/must_full.pdf
17 Gandy J (2014). Manual of Dietetic Practice, chp 7.17.5 Surgery, p 903-905
18 Dindo D et al (2003). Obesity in general elective surgery. Lancet [online]
19 Ri M et al (2018). Obesity as a surgical risk factor. Annals of Gastroenterological Surgery [online]
20 NICE. (2012). Nutrition support in adults. Quality Standard [QS24]
21 Bouvet L and Benhamou D (2008). Preoperative fasting. Praticien en Anesthesie Reanimation
22 Kratzing C (2011). Pre-operative nutrition and carbohydrate loading. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society [online]
23 Smith MD, McCall J, Plank L, Herbison GP, Soop M, Nygren J. Preoperative carbohydrate treatment for enhancing recovery after elective surgery. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 8. Art. No: CD009161. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009161.pub2

Page 29 PRETEEN OBESITY: THE PARENT’S ROLE by Farihah Choudhury
1 World Health Organisation (2018). Obesity and Overweight. Available via: www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight [Accessed 7th June 2019]
2 National Children’s Bureau (2017). Working together to reduce childhood obesity: Ideas and approaches involving the VCSE sector, education and local government
3 Dyer O (2002). First cases of Type 2 diabetes found in white UK teenagers. BMJ (Clinical research ed), 324 (7336), 506
4 National Paediatric Diabetes Audit and Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (2018) National Paediatric Diabetes Audit 2016-17. Care Processes and Outcomes. Available: www.rcpch.ac.uk/sites/default/files/2018-07/npda_annual_report_2016_-_2017_april_2018_final_updated_3.pdf] [Accessed 7th June 2019]
5 Public Health England (2018). Patterns and trends in child obesity. Updated Jan 2019. Available via www.gov.uk/guidance/phe-data-and-analysis-tools#obesity-diet-and-physical-activity [Accessed: 7th June 2019]
6 Health Survey for England 2017 (2018). Summary of key findings. Available via https://files.digital.nhs.uk/5B/B1297D/HSE%20report%20summary.pdf
7 Savage JS, Fisher JO and Birch LL (2007). Parental influence on eating behaviour: conception to adolescence. The Journal of law, medicine & ethics: a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 35(1), 22-34
8 IL Tzou, NF Chu (2012). Parental influence on childhood obesity: A review. Health 4: 1464-1470
9 Wardle J, Sanderson S, Guthrie CA, Rapoport L and Plomin R (2002). Parental feeding style and the intergenerational transmission of obesity risk. Obesity, 10, 453-462
10 Campbell KJ, Crawford DA, Salmon J, Carver A, Garnett SP and Baur LA (2007). Associations between the home food environment and obesity-promoting eating behaviours in adolescence. Obesity, 15, 719-730
11 McKee C, Long L, Southward LH, Walker B, McCown J (2016). The Role of Parental Misperception of Child's Body Weight in Childhood Obesity, Journal of Pediatric Nursing 31(2): 196-203
12 Rankin J et al (2016). Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 7: 125-146
13 Lindsay A, Sussner KM, Kim J and Gortmaker SL (2006). The Role of Parents in Preventing Childhood Obesity. The Future of children/Centre for the Future of Children, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. 16: 169-86
14 Loring B and Robertson A (2014). Obesity and inequities. Guidance for addressing inequities in overweight and obesity. Copenhagen: World Health Organisation.
15 Goisis A, Sacker A and Kelly Y (2016). Why are poorer children at higher risk of obesity and overweight? A UK cohort study. Eur J Public Health. 26(1): 7-13
16 The National Social Marketing Centre (2012). Change4Life case study. Available via www.thensmc.com/resources/showcase/change4life
17 National Child Measurement Programme 2016/17, Public Health England. https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/national-child-measurement-programme/2016-17-school-year
18 www.nhs.uk/change4life/

Page 33 EGGS – FRIENDS OR FOE? By Laura Kaar
1. Rehault-Godbert S, Guyot N, Nys Y. The Golden Egg: Nutritional Value, Bioactivities, and Emerging Benefits for Human Health. Nutrients. 2019;11(3).
2. The Food Pyramid - meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans and nuts 2019 [Available from: https://www.safefood.eu/Healthy-Eating/The-Food-Pyramid-and-The-Eatwell-Guide/The-Food-Pyramid/Meat,-fish,-eggs-and-alternatives.aspx.
3. @nhsuk. The healthy way to eat eggs - NHS: Department of Health; 2019 [Available from: https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/eat-well/eggs-nutrition/.
4. McNamara DJ. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg. Nutrients. 2015;7(10):8716-22.
5. Kuang H, Yang F, Zhang Y, Wang T, Chen G. The Impact of Egg Nutrient Composition and Its Consumption on Cholesterol Homeostasis. Cholesterol. 2019.
6. Kanter MM, Kris-Etherton PM, Fernandez ML, Vickers KC, Katz DL. Exploring the factors that affect blood cholesterol and heart disease risk: is dietary cholesterol as bad for you as history leads us to believe? Adv Nutr. 2012;3(5):711-7.
7. Kim JE, Campbell WW. Dietary Cholesterol Contained in Whole Eggs Is Not Well Absorbed and Does Not Acutely Affect Plasma Total Cholesterol Concentration in Men and Women: Results from 2 Randomized Controlled Crossover Studies. Nutrients. 2018;10(9):1272.
8. Lopez Sobaler AM, Aparicio Vizuete A, Ortega RM. Role of the egg in the diet of athletes and physically active people. Nutr Hosp. 2017;34(Suppl 4):31-5.
9. Clifton PM, Keogh JB. A systematic review of the effect of dietary saturated and polyunsaturated fat on heart disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;27(12):1060-80.
10. Food Facts home 2019 [Available from: https://www.bda.uk.com/foodfacts/home.
11. Tallman DA, Sahathevan S, Karupaiah T, Khosla P. Egg Intake in Chronic Kidney Disease. Nutrients. 2018;10(12).
12. https://www.tesco.ie/groceries/Product/Details/?id=252807490 [Available from: https://www.tesco.ie/groceries/Product/Details/?id=252807490.
13. van Vliet S, Departments of Kinesiology and Community Health UoIaU-C, Urbana, IL, Shy EL, Departments of Kinesiology and Community Health UoIaU-C, Urbana, IL, Abou Sawan S, Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education UoT, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, et al. Consumption of whole eggs promotes greater stimulation of postexercise muscle protein synthesis than consumption of isonitrogenous amounts of egg whites in young men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2019;106(6):1401-12.
14. Lutter CK, Iannotti LL, Stewart CP. The potential of a simple egg to improve maternal and child nutrition. Matern Child Nutr. 2018;14 Suppl 3:e12678.
15. Detopoulou P, Panagiotakos DB, Antonopoulou S, Pitsavos C, Stefanadis C. Dietary choline and betaine intakes in relation to concentrations of inflammatory markers in healthy adults: the ATTICA study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(2):424-30.
16. SACN vitamin D and health report 2016 [Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/sacn-vitamin-d-and-health-report.
17. Jones SK, Koh GY, Rowling MJ, Schalinske KL. Whole Egg Consumption Prevents Diminished Serum 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Concentrations in Type 2 Diabetic Rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2016;64(1):120-4.
18 The Eatwell Guide. Public Health England: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/742750/Eatwell_Guide_booklet_2018v4.pdf
19 British Heart Foundation Portion Guide. https://www.bhf.org.uk/informationsupport/support/healthy-living/healthy-eating/healthy-eati
20. European Commission (2011) Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers.

Page 36 ILEOSTOMY/COLOSTOMY MANAGEMENT: THE FOUR FS IN STOMA CARE by Rebecca Gasche
1 Lomer M and Stuart A (2014). Advanced nutrition and dietetics in gastroenterology. Chichester, England: Wiley Blackwell
2 Stomawise. The UK Support Network for Ostomates. Ileostomy, Colostomy and Urostomy (2019). Overview; [online] www.stomawise.co.uk/types-of-stoma/overview [accessed 11 April 2019]
3 Beating Bowel Cancer (2018). Types of Bowel Surgery To Remove Tumours - Beating Bowel Cancer. [online] www.beatingbowelcancer.org/understanding-bowel-cancer/treatment/surgery/types-bowel-surgery/ [accessed 15 June 2018]
4 Bakewell L (2017). Management of High Output Stoma. CN
5 Arenas Villafranca J, López-Rodríguez C, Abilés J, Rivera R, Gándara Adán N and Utrilla Navarro P (2015). Protocol for the detection and nutritional management of high-output stomas. Nutrition Journal, 14(1)
6 Stmarksnhshospital.org.uk (2019). [online] www.stmarksnhshospital.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Electrolyte-mix.pdf [accessed 11 April 2019]
7 Nutrition.org.uk (2018). [online] www.nutrition.org.uk/attachments/article/881/BNF%20Fibre%20factsheet.pdf [accessed 11 April 2018]
8 Doughty D. Principles of ostomy management in the oncology patient. Journal of Supportive Oncology. 2005; 3: 59-69
9 Silvester KR, Englyst HN, Cummings JH (1995). Ileal recovery of starch from whole diets containing resistant starch in vitro and fermentation of ileal effluent. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 62(2): 403-411
10 O'Connor G. (2005). Teaching stoma-management skills: the importance of self-care. British Journal of Nursing, 14(6), p 320-324
11 Persson E and Hellström AL (2002). Experiences of Swedish men and women 6 to 12 weeks after ostomy surgery. Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing, 29, 103-108
12 Readding LA (2005). Hospital to home: Smoothing the journey for the new ostomist. British Journal of Nursing, 14(16), 16-20
13 Fulham J (2008). A guide to caring for patients with a newly formed stoma in the acute hospital setting. Gastrointestinal Nursing, 6(8), 14-23
14 Magonlinelibrary.com (2019). Self-care and patient empowerment in stoma management. Gastrointestinal Nursing. [online] www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/abs/10.12968/gasn.2012.10.2.19 [accessed 11 April 2019]
15 Broadbent E, Petrie KJ, Alley PG and Booth RJ (2003). Psychological stress impairs early wound repair following surgery. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 865-869. doi:10.1097/01.PSY.0000088589.92699.30
16 Upton D and Solowiej K (2010). Pain and stress as contributors to delayed wound healing. Wound Practice and Research, 18, 114-122
17 Von Ah D, Kang DH and Carpenter JS (2007). Stress, optimism and social support. Research in Nursing and Health, 30, 72-83
18 Cotrim H and Pereira G (2008). Impact of colorectal cancer on patient and family: Implications for care. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 12, 217-226. doi:10.1016/j.ejon.2007.11.005
19 Borwell B (2009b). Rehabilitation and stoma care: Addressing the psychological needs. British Journal of Nursing, 18, S20-S22, S24-S25
20 Hollwarth ME. Short bowel syndrome: pathophysiological and clinical aspects. Pathophysiology.1999; 6:1-19
21 Matarese LE. Nutrition and fluid optimisation for patients with short bowel syndrome. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2013; 37: 161-170
22 Eusufzai S. Bile acid malabsorption: mechanisms and treatment. Dig Dis. 1995; 13: 312-321

Page 39 DEVELOPING A DIETETIC SERVICE by Louise Edwards
1 Amina Ettorchi-Tardy, Marie Levif and Philippe Michel (2012). Benchmarking: A method for continuous quality improvement in health. Health Policy, 7(4), 101-119
2 Baker ML, Williams RN and Nightingale JMD (2010). Causes and management of a high-output stoma, Colorectal Diseases, 13 (2); 191-7
3 Model for dietetic outcomes, British Dietetic Association (2011).
4 The dietetic outcomes toolkit. March 2016.

Page 42 ORAL NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS – APPROPRIATE PRESCRIBING FOR A CLINICAL NEED by Martha Hughes
1 Advisory Committee on Borderline Substances. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/groups/advisory-committee-on-borderline-substances
2 Malnutrition Task Force (2013). Malnutrition in Later Life: Prevention and Early Intervention. www.malnutritiontaskforce.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/CH-Prevention_Early_Intervention_Of_Malnutrition_in_Later_Life_Care_Home.pdf
3 Elia M (2015). The cost of malnutrition in England and potential cost savings from nutritional interventions. Malnutrition Action Group of BAPEN and the National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre
4 NHS England (2015). Guidance – Commissioning Excellent Nutrition and Hydration 2015-2018. www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/nut-hyd-guid.pdf
5 Stratton RJ, Hackston A, Longmore D et al (2004). Malnutrition in hospital outpatients and inpatients; prevalence, concurrent validity and ease of use of the ‘Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) for adults. British Journal of Nutrition; 92(5): 799-808
6 NHS England (2015). Ten key characteristics of ‘good nutrition and hydration care’ Available at: www.england.nhs.uk/commissioning/nut-hyd/10-key-characteristics/
7 Gibbons T, Fuchs GJ (2009). Clin Pediatr (Phila); 48(4): 356-61
8 Stratton RJ, Green CJ, Elia M (2003). Wallingford: CABI Publishing
9 Elia M, Russell C (2009). Redditch
10 Stratton RJ, King CL, Stroud MA et al (2006). Br J Nutr; 95(2): 325-30
11 NICE. Quality Standard [QS24] (2012). Nutrition Support in adults. nice.org.uk/guidance/qs24
12 NICE. Clinical Guideline [CG32] (2006). Nutritional support for adults: oral nutrition support, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition. nice.org.uk/guidance/cg32
13 BAPEN. Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool ‘MUST’. http://www.bapen.org.uk/pdfs/must/must_full.pdf
14 Managing Adult Malnutrition in the Community: Including a pathway for the appropriate use of oral nutritional supplements (ONS). Produced by a multi-professional consensus panel. 2012. Available at: http://malnutritionpathway.co.uk/downloads/Managing_Malnutrition.pdf
15 British Specialist Nutrition Association (2018). Choosing the appropriate oral nutritional supplement (ONS) – powder vs liquid. Available at: https://bsna.co.uk/uploads/banners/CHOOSING-THE-APPROPRIATE-ORAL-NUTRITIONAL-SUPPLEMENT-20180205-Final.pdf