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  1. networking piccy

    Summer time is when lecturers and professors disappear for three months, until the students return from their holidays. They kick off their shoes, put on their swimming kit and head for the beach… No, not exactly. Academics work all year round and when the students are away they typically spend their time focusing more on their research activities. A part of that involves going to scientific conferences to present their research to their peers, to hear the research of others and to meet colleagues from all over the world that work in the same field. Sometimes this is in a really nice place, often outside the UK  (I have been to Australia, South Africa, Canada, the USA and a rather fine five star hotel in Majorca) and sometimes it can be quite mundane and ordinary (Leeds, Leicester or Luton).

    Whilst there are lots of science presentations and keynote lectures, these meetings are really all about networking- getting to know people and forming professional relationships. We like to get together in formal and in social situations, make friends, talk about science and generally plan world-domination. Networking isn't just for academics though, it is valuable for everyone. You may get the chance to meet and speak with a future employer, with your nutrition hero (!) or with students from other universities who, along with you, will be the nutrition leaders of the future. On this basis going to a conference is something you should really consider as a means of learning about the cutting-edge of our science and as a means of meeting people and making contacts.

    Networking is all about making use of connections between groups of colleagues to develop your career. Attending events that encourage networking is important for anyone who wants to  improve their career prospects. Who you know and how you know them can influence the development of collaborative projects, facilitate sharing of information and maybe even help you get a job. Networking can be formal or informal and works through face-to-face contact (a chat over a buffet lunch maybe) and electronic routes (sites like LinkedIn are good for developing networks). Meeting people through work or study is very much like forming personal friendships and you will mix with colleagues in your field, maybe from your own department or university and maybe from the other side of the planet. Some of them you will like a lot and form a bond with, others may not be your cup of tea, but better to find out at a conference than when you've committed to work with or for them. Conferences provide a great venue for all sort of networking activities and exploring of possibilities.

    Conferences can be incredibly expensive to attend for academics such as myself. They charge registration fees in addition to the costs of travel to exotic locations and accommodation. However, all conferences ensure that they remain accessible for students. There is always a cheap student rate for registration, so if you can find a conference that is nearby and cheap to get to, then you should definitely give it a go. In the nutrition world there are lots of options that might be useful to students at all levels. The Nutrition Society has an annual summer meeting and a winter meeting every year where you can see research presented by experts in their field and where postgraduate students often present for the first time. The society also has an annual postgraduate student meeting run by and for postgraduate students. For dietitians there is the annual BDA Research Symposium which is a great place to present undergraduate dissertation work and you might also consider going to BDA Live for a broader networking experience. 

  2. Unless you have been living off-planet for the last 20 years or so, you will be aware that obesity prevalence has risen sharply all across the world. We now view obesity as a greater threat to health than undernutrition and it is implicated in the development of heart disease, type-2 diabetes, several types of cancer and a wide spectrum of other health problems.

    The standard approach to tackling obesity in individuals is to introduce an energy restricted diet to induce a loss of fat mass. To do this we depend upon personalised calculations of actual energy requirements so that we can ensure that the restricted diet delivers energy below requirement, but whilst still maintaining physiological functions.

    Determining energy requirement can be done in a variety of ways, but mostly clinicians rely on predictive equations to determine energy expenditure. These include the Mifflin-St Jeor, Henry, Scholefield, Harris-Benedict, Owen and Katch-McArdle equations. These generally take into account height, weight, age and physical activity levels. All of the equations make assumptions about the individual and are prone to error associated with ethnicity, age and, most importantly, the BMI of the subject. Accuracy tends to be better in lean individuals and the equations lose accuracy with overweight and obesity. Given the importance of estimating energy requirements in order to achieve weight loss in obese individuals, there is a need to identify which equations are most useful for this population.

    Angela Madden (University of Hertfordshire) and colleagues carried out two systematic reviews of the literature (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jhn.12355/full ) to consider which predictive equations were the most accurate and precise in estimating resting energy expenditure (REE) and total energy expenditure (TEE) in healthy obese adults. They considered 25 studies which were able to directly compare calculated REE and TEE with measurements made using doubly-labelled water and other techniques. The reviews showed that none of the available equations for measuring TEE were accurate in obese people and as such they cannot be recommended for this purpose.

    Importantly the reviews found that there was considerable variation in accuracy of equations to measure REE, with BMI as the main determinant of that accuracy. The important outcome of the work is that we have some guidance on which equation to choose based upon the body composition of the individual.

    BMI subgroup

    Most precise equation

    Precision (%)

    >25 kg/m2

    Mifflin

    65.9

    >30 kg/m2

    Mifflin

    65.8

    30-39.99 kg/m2

    Livingston

    75.0

    >40 kg/m2

    Mifflin

    76.3

    Although a single equation for all individuals is not ideal, Madden and colleagues recognised that in clinical practice, having just one equation for all obese people has greater utility. On this basis they suggest that the Mifflin equation is most appropriate for patients with BMI>25 kg/m2.