Mar 19: Issue 142

Page 9 NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: THE ROLE OF WATER IN BODY SYSTEMS by Farihah Choudhury
1 British Nutrition Foundation (2019). Available at: www.nutrition.org.uk/healthyliving/hydration/healthy-hydration-guide.html
2 NHS (2018). Six to eight glasses still best. Available at: www.nhs.uk/news/food-and-diet/six-to-eight-glasses-of-water-still-best/ [Accessed: 5th January 2019]
3 Noakes TD (2012). Commentary: role of hydration in health and exercise, BMJ; 345 www.bmj.com/content/345/bmj.e4171
4 Shaheen NA, Alqahtani AA, Assiri H, Alkhodair R and Hussein MA (2018). Public knowledge of dehydration and fluid intake practices: variation by participants' characteristics. BMC public health, 18(1), 1346
5 NHS (2018). Nutrition and hydration resources. Available at: https://improvement.nhs.uk/resources/nutrition-and-hydration/ [Accessed: 5th January 2019]
6 Care Inspectorate and NHS Scotland (2016). Managing Falls and Fractures in Care Homes for Older People – good practice resource. Available at: www.careinspectorate.com/images/documents/2737/2016/Falls-and-fractures-new-resource-low-res.pdf [Accessed: 6th January 2019]
7 Kerksick CM, Wilborn CD, Roberts MD, Smith-Ryan A, Kleiner SM, Jäger R, Collins R, Cooke M, Davis JN, Galvan E, Greenwood M, Lowery LM, Wildman R, Antonio J, Kreider RB (2018). ISSN exercise and sports nutrition review update: research and recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15(1), 38
8 Stroebele N, De Castro JM (2004). Effect of ambience on food intake and food choice. Nutrition, 20. pp 821-838
9 Malnutrition Task Force (2014). Available at: www.malnutritiontaskforce.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/A-review-and-summary-of-the-impact-of-malnutrition-in-older-people-and-the-reported-costs-and-benefits-of-interventions.pdf [Accessed: 5th January 2019]
10 Corish CA, Kennedy NP (2000). Protein-energy undernutrition in hospital in-patients. Br J Nutr. 83(6) pp 575-91
11 Department of Health & Age UK (2014). The Hospital Food Standards Panel’s report on standards for food and drink in NHS hospitals. Available: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/523049/Hospital_Food_Panel_May_2016.pdf [Accessed: 5th January 5th 2019]
12 Godfrey H, Cloete J, Dymond E, Long A (2012). An Exploration of the hydration care of older people: a qualitative study. International Journal of Nursing Studies 49, pp 1200-1211
13 Almond CS, Shin AY, Fortescue EB, Mannix RC, Wypij D, Binstadt BA, Duncan CN, Olson DP, Salerno AE, Newburger JW, Greenes DS (2005). Hyponatremia among Runners in the Boston Marathon, N Engl J Med. 352(15): pp1550-6
14 Myers TM and Hoffman MD (2015). Hiker Fatality From Severe Hyponatremia in Grand Canyon National Park, Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 26(3), pp 371-374
15 Ayus JC, Varon J, Arieff AI (2000). Hyponatremia, cerebral edema and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema in marathon runners. Ann Intern Med 132, pp 711-714

Page 14 THE MANAGEMENT OF CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM by Annaruby Cunjamalay
1 Hussain K. Congenital hyperinsulinism. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med, 2005 Aug:10(4): 369-76
2 Galcheva S, Al-Khawaga S, Hussain K. Diagnosis and management of hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug; 32(4): 551-573
3 Shah P, Rahman SA, Demirbilek H, Güemes M, Hussain K. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia in children and adults. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017 Sep; 5(9): 729-742
4 Aynsley-Green A, Hussain K, Hall J, Saudubray JM, Nihoul-Fékété C, De Lonlay-Debeney P, Brunelle F, Otonkoski T, Thornton P, Lindley KJ. Practical management of hyperinsulinism in infancy. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2000 Mar; 82(2)
5 Demirbilek H, Hussain K. Congenital Hyperinsulinism: Diagnosis and Treatment Update. Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2017 Dec 30; 9 (Suppl 2): 69-87. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.2017.S007. Epub 2017 Dec 27
6 Stanley CA. Perspective on the genetics and diagnosis of congenital hyperinsulinism disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016; 101(3): 815-826
7 Arya VB, Senniappan S, Demirbilek H et al. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function in children following near-total pancreatectomy for diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(5)
8 Vanessa Shaw. Clinical Paediatric Dietetics, 4th Edition, November 2014. Wiley-Blackwell
9 AL-Shanafey, Alkhudhur H. Food aversion among patients with persistant hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia of infancy, 2012 May; 47(5): 895-7
10 Banerjee I, Forsythe L, Skae M, Avatapalle HB, Rigby L, Bowden LE, Craigie R, Padidela R, Ehtisham S, Patel L, Cosgrove KE, Dunne MJ, Clayton PE. Feeding Problems Are Persistent in Children with Severe Congenital Hyperinsulinism. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2016 Feb 9; 7:8
11 Heinonen MV1, Karhunen LJ, Chabot ED, Toppinen LK, Juntunen KS, Laaksonen DE, Siloaho M, Liukkonen KH, Herzig KH, Niskanen LK, Mykkänen HM. Plasma ghrelin levels after two high-carbohydrate meals producing different insulin responses in patients with metabolic syndrome. Regul Pept. 2007 Feb 1;138

Page 21 MALNUTRITION IN THE ELDERLY: CURRENT CHALLENGES AND INTERVENTIONS by Harriet Smith
1 Gandy J (2014). Manual of Dietetic Practice, chp 6.2 Malnutrition
2 BAPEN (2015). The cost of malnutrition in England and potential cost savings from nutritional interventions (short version). Available at: www.bapen.org.uk/pdfs/economic-report-short.pdf [Last accessed: 3/02/2019]
3 Dera M and Woodham D (2016). Care of the older person: treating malnutrition in the community. Factors contributing to malnutrition. Br J Community Nurs
4 JP McWhirter (1994). Incidence and recognition of malnutrition in hospital. Clin Nutr
5 R Kozáková, D Jarošová, R Zeleníková and S Bocková. Nutrition screening tools for hospitalised patients. Hygiena, 2011
6 NICE guideline CG32 (2006). Nutrition support in adults. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs24/chapter/quality-statement-1-screening-for-the-risk-of-malnutrition
7 Womersley K and Ripullone K (2017). Medical schools should be prioritising nutrition and lifestyle education. BMJ (Clinical research ed). [Online]
8 CA Russel and M Elia (2011). Nutrition Screening Survey in the UK and Republic of Ireland in 2011. BAPEN
9 NICE (2011). Pilot to improve the appropriate prescription or oral nutrition supplements within the Walsall area. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/sharedlearning/pilot-to-improve-the-appropriate-prescription-of-oral-nutritional-supplements-within-the-walsall-area
10 S Lever and V Hainsworth (2013). A Guide to Prescribing Adult Oral Nutritional Supplements (ONS) in the Community. Available at: 11 Keller H et al (2015). Barriers to food intake in acute care hospitals: A report of the Canadian Malnutrition Task Force. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. [Online]
12 Ottrey E et al (2018). Ward culture and staff relationships at hospital mealtimes in Australia: An ethnographic account. Nursing and Health Sciences. [Online]
13 Winter Falk L et al (1996). Food Choice Processes of Older Adults: A Qualitative Investigation. Journal of Nutrition Education. [Online] 28257-265
14 Sahyoun NR et al (2005). Barriers to the consumption of fruits and vegetables among older adults. Journal of nutrition for the elderly. [Online] 24 (4), 5-21
15 Age UK (2014). Age UK Evidence Review: Poverty in Later Life. Available at: www.futureyears.org.uk/uploads/files/Age%20UK%20on%20poverty%20in%20old%20age.pdf
16 Sustain (2017). Taking the Pulse of Hospital Food: A survey of NHS hospitals, using London as a test case 36pp. Available at: www.sustainweb.org/publications/taking_the_pulse/
17 Department of Health (2016). The Hospital Food Standards Panel's Report on Standards for Food and Drink in NHS Hospitals. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/523049/Hospital_Food_Panel_May_2016.pdf
18 Baldwin C and Weekes CE (2012). Dietary counselling with or without oral nutritional supplements in the management of malnourished patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. [Online]
19 Hubbard GP et al (2012). A systematic review of compliance to oral nutritional supplements. Clinical Nutrition
20 Hartwell HJ et al (2013). Effects of a hospital ward eating environment on patients’ mealtime experience: A pilot study. Nutrition and Dietetics. [Online]

Page 25 OVERNUTRITION: A UK PUBLIC HEALTH CRISIS by Farihah Choudhury
1 FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO (2018). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018. Building climate resilience for food security and nutrition. Rome, FAO
2 World Health Organisation (2018). Obesity and overweight. Available: www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight. Accessed 27th Dec 2018
3 Bjerregaard P, Kue Young T, Dewailly E and Ebbesson SOE (2004). Review Article: Indigenous health in the Arctic: an overview of the circumpolar Inuit population. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 32(5): 390-395
4 Eberly E (2006) Investigating the Health Status of the Yakut: An Analysis of Residence and Sex Differences in Blood Pressure. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Anthropology
5 Anderson I, Robson B, Connolly M, Al-Yaman F, Bjertness E et al (2016). Indigenous and tribal peoples' health (The Lancet, Lowitja Institute Global Collaboration): a population study. The Lancet, 388(10040): 131-157
6 The Siberian Times (2017). First ever cases of obesity in Arctic peoples as noodles replace traditional diet. http://siberiantimes.com/science/opinion/features/f0289-first-ever-cases-of-obesity-in-arctic-peoples-as-noodles-replace-traditional-diet/ [Accessed 27th Dec 2018]
7 O'Keefe SJ, Li JV, Lahti L, Ou J, Carbonero F, Mohammed K, Posma JM et al (2015). Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans. Nature Communications, 6, 6342
8 World Health Organisation (2019). BMI measurements. Available at: www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/a-healthy-lifestyle/body-mass-index-bmi [Accessed 27th Dec 2018]
9 Garn SM, Leonard WR, Hawthorne VM (1986). Three limitations of the body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr. 44(6): 996-7
10 Heymsfield SB, Peterson CM, Thomas DM, Heo M and Schuna JM (2015). Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index-adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review. Obesity reviews: an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 17(3): 262-75
11 NICE (2013). BMI: preventing ill health and premature death in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ph46 [Accessed 27th Dec 2018]
12 NHS (2019). Obesity. Available at: www.nhs.uk/conditions/obesity/ [Accessed Dec 27th 2018]
13 Leddy MA, Power ML and Schulkin J (2008). The impact of maternal obesity on maternal and fetal health. Reviews in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1(4): 170-8
14 Health Survey for England (2006). Available: https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/health-survey-for-england/health-survey-for-england-2006-cvd-and-risk-factors-for-adults-obesity-and-risk-factors-for-children [Accessed 27th Dec 2018]
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16 BAPEN (2018). Malnutrition. Available at: www.bapen.org.uk/malnutrition-undernutrition/introduction-to-malnutrition?start=4
17 NHS Statistics (2018). Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet - England: 2018. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/statistics/statistics-on-obesity-physical-activity-and-diet-england-2018
18 Dyer O (2002). First cases of Type 2 diabetes found in white UK teenagers. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 324(7336), 506
19 The Guardian (2014). Obesity could bankrupt the NHS if left unchecked. Available at: www.theguardian.com/society/2014/sep/17/obesity-bankrupt-nhs-warning [Accessed 27th Dec 2018]
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22 Tung YCL, Gulati P, Liu CH, Rimmington D, Dennis R et al (2015). FTO is necessary for the induction of leptin resistance by high-fat feeding. Molecular Metabolism 4(4): 287-98
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24 Gov.uk (2016). Childhood Obesity: A Plan for Action Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/718903/childhood-obesity-a-plan-for-action-chapter-2.pdf [Accessed: 7th January 2019]
25 Gov.uk (2018). Soft Drinks Industry Levy comes into effect. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/news/soft-drinks-industry-levy-comes-into-effect [Accessed: 7th January 2019]
26 Gov.uk (2018). 10-year olds in the UK. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/news/10-year-olds-in-the-uk-have-consumed-18-years-worth-of-sugar [Accessed: 7th January 2019]

Page 29 FOOD ALLERGIES IN TODDLERS: OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGES by Rachel De Boer
1 Kattan J. The prevalence and natural history of food allergy. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2016; 16(7): 47
2 Perkin MR et al. Randomised trial of introduction of allergenic foods in breast fed infants. N Engl J Med. 2016; 374:1733-1743
3 Osborne NJ et al. Prevalence of challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy using population-based sampling and predetermined challenge criteria in infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011; 127(3): 668-76. e2
4 Food Standards Agency (2018). www.food.gov.uk/safety-hygiene/food-allergy-and-intolerance
5 Sicherer S et al. Food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010; 125 (2 Suppl 2): S116-S125
6 Muraro A et al. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: diagnosis and management of food allergy. Allergy 2014 Aug; 69(8): 1008-25
7 Dang T et al. Debates in allergy medicine: baked egg and milk do not accelerate tolerance to egg and milk. World Allergy Organisation Journal. 2016; 9:2

Page 33 FOOD ALLERGEN LABELLING: AN UPDATE ON WHERE WE ARE NOW by Lydia Collins-Hussey
1 Allergy UK. https://www.allergyuk.org/
2 Blom WM, Michelsen-Huisman AD, van Os-Medendorp H, van Duijn G, Versluis A, Castenmiller JJ, Noteborn HP, Kruizinga AG, Knulst AC and Houben GF (2018). Accidental food allergy reactions: products and undeclared ingredients. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
3 https://consult.defra.gov.uk/agri-food-chain-directorate/consultation-on-amending-allergen-information/
4 https://consult.defra.gov.uk/agri-food-chain-directorate/consultation-on-amending-allergen-information/consultation/subpage.2019-01-03.2766729076/
5 http://www.foodmaestro.me/home.html and https://www.spoon.guru/

Page 36 MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM WORK IN THE COMMUNITY SETTING by Karen Voas
1 NHS England (2014). Five Year Forward View. Accessed at: www.england.nhs.uk/publication/nhs-five-year-forward-view/
2 NHS England (2018). MDT working, MDT development. Making it happen. Accessed at: www.england.nhs.uk/publication/making-it-happen-multi-disciplinary-team-mdt-working/
3 Clarke D (2013). The role of multidisciplinary team care in stroke rehabilitation. Neurology and Psychiatry 10.1002 Multidisciplinary care
4 Swientozielskyj et al (2015). Working towards an effective multidisciplinary team. MDT development subtitle, component handbook
5 Taylor, Atkins, Richardson (2012). Measuring the quality of MDT working: An observational approach. BMC, Cancer. 12: 202
6 Cancer Research UK (2018). Accessed at: www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-us/we-develop-policy/our-policy-on-cancer-services/improving-the-effectiveness-of-mdts-in-cancer-services
7 Huxley P, Evans S, Baker C et al (2011). Integration of social care staff within community mental health teams. London: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)

Page 39 HEALTHY EATING ON A BUDGET by Maeve Hanan
1. WHO Website (2018) “Social determinants of health” [accessed November 2018 via: https://www.who.int/social_determinants/sdh_definition/en/]
2. Lago et al. (2018) “Socioeconomic status, health inequalities and non-communicable diseases: a systematic review” [accessed November 2018 via: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5794817/
3. Dowler & O’Connor (2012) “Rights-based approaches to addressing food poverty and food insecurity in Ireland and UK” [accessed November 2018 via: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0277953611005545
4. Oxfam website (2018) “Food poverty in the UK” [accessed November 2018 via: https://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/our-work/inequality/food-poverty
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Page 43 SUPPORTING PEOPLE TO EAT WELL AND LIVE WELL WITH DEMENTIA by Evelyn Newman

1.Alzheimer Society (2013) Dementia 2013: the Hidden Voice of Loneliness. Alzheimer Society, London.www.alzheimers.org.uk/download/downloads/id/1677/dementia_2013_the_hidden_voice_of_loneliness.pdf
2. Health Improvement Scotland: A human rights based approach to care 2017
3. https://letstalkaboutdementia.wordpress.com/2017/10/05/connecting-people-connecting-support-executive-summary/
4. https://www.gov.scot/publications/allied-health-professions-co-creating-wellbeing-people-scotland-active-independent/pages/5/
5. Focus games (The Dysphagia game) https://focusgames.com
6. https://iddsi.org
7. https://www.carersuk.org/help-and-advice/health/nutrition/dementia-and-nutrition
8. https://www.bda.uk.com/improvinghealth/healthprofessionals/keyfacts/dementia_kf_sheet

Page 45 DISEASES OF THE PANCREAS: NICE GUIDANCE SUMMARISED by Rebecca Gasche
1. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2018). Pancreatitis NICE guideline NG104. Available at https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng104/evidence/full-guideline-pdf-6535536157
2. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2018). Pancreatic cancer in adults: diagnosis and management NICE guideline [NG85]. Available at https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng85
3. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2017). Alcohol-use disorders: diagnosis and management of physical complications Clinical Guidance [CG100]. Available at https://www.nice.org.uk/Guidance/CG100
4. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2011). Alcohol-use disorders: diagnosis, assessment and management of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence. Clinical guideline [CG115]. Available at https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG115
5. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2018). Stop smoking interventions and services NICE guideline [NG92]. Available at https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng92/
6. nhs.uk. (2017). Acute pancreatitis. [online] Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/acute-pancreatitis/
7. BMJ. (2015). Acute pancreatitis. BMJ. Available at www.bestpractice.bmj.com
8. Mayerle, M., Hoffmeister, A., Werner, J., et al. (2013) Chronic pancreatitis - definition, etiology, investigations and treatment.Clinical Practice Guideline. (2013)(110(22)), 387-393.
9. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2015). Type 2 diabetes in adults: management. NICE guideline [NG28]. Available from https://www.nice.org.uk/Guidance/NG28
10. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2015). Type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management NICE guideline [NG17]. Available from https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng17
11. NHS. (2014). Five year forward view. Available from https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/5yfv-web.pdf