References April Issue 153

AN EGG A DAY IS OK - pg 6

1 Drouin-Chartier JP, Chen S, Li Y et al (2020). Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: three large prospective US cohort studies, systematic review, and updated meta-analysis. BMJ. Published online 04/03/20

FRUIT FOR THOUGHT - pg 9 -11

1 Eurostat, European Union Statistics. News release 14/10/2016
2 Afshin A, Sur PJ, Fay KA, Cornaby L, Ferrara G, Salama JS, Mullany EC, Abate KH, Abbafati C, Abebe Z and Afarideh M (2019). Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet, 393(10184), p 1958-1972
3 Atkinson FS, Foster-Powell K and Brand-Miller JC (2008). International tables of glycaemic index and glycaemic load values: 2008. Diabetes care, 31(12), p 2281-2283
4 Guyenet SJ (2019). Impact of whole, fresh fruit consumption on energy intake and adiposity: a systematic review. Frontiers in nutrition, 6, p 66
5 Dreher ML and Davenport AJ (2013). Hass avocado composition and potential health effects. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 53(7), p 738-750
6 Luís Â, Domingues F and Pereira L (2018). Association between berries intake and cardiovascular diseases risk factors: a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomised controlled trials. Food & Function, 9(2), p 740-757
7 Aune D, Giovannucci E, Boffetta P, Fadnes LT, Keum N, Norat T, Greenwood DC, Riboli E, Vatten LJ and Tonstad S (2017). Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality – a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. International journal of epidemiology, 46(3), p 1029-1056
8 Macdiarmid JI (2013). Seasonality and dietary requirements: will eating seasonal food contribute to health and environmental sustainability? Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 73(03), p 368-375. doi:10.1017/s0029665113003753
9 Ritchie H (2020, January 24). You want to reduce the carbon footprint of your food? Focus on what you eat, not whether your food is local. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/food-choice-vs-eating-local
10 Poore J and Nemecek T (2018). Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers. Science, 360(6392), p 987-992
11 Rickman JC, Barrett MD and Bruhn MC (2007). Nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen and canned fruits and vegetables. Part 1. Vitamins C and B and phenolic compounds. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87, p 930-944
12 Rickman JC, Barrett MD and Bruhn MC (2007). Nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen and canned fruits and vegetables. Part II. Vitamin A and carotenoids, vitamin E, minerals and fibre. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87, p 1185-1196

 

GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE AND DYSPHAGIA - pg 13 - 16 

1 G Richard Locke III, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, MN, The Prevalence and Impact of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease 19 September 2019
2 World Gastroenterology Organisation Global Guidelines. GERD Global Perspective on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. J Clin Gastroenterol Volume 51, Number 6, July 2017
3 Eusebi LH, Ratnakumaran R, Yuan Y, Solaymani-Dodaran M, Bazzoli F and Ford AC (2017). Global prevalence of, and risk factors for, gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms: a meta-analysis. Gut, 67(3), 430-440. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2016-313589
4 Kamal AN, Clarke JO. (2020) Advances in Testing for Dysphagia. In: Patel D., Kavitt R., Vaezi M. (eds) Evaluation and Management of Dysphagia. Springer, Cham
5 Chatila, A. T., Nguyen, M. T. T., Krill, T., Roark, R., Bilal, M., & Reep, G. (2019). Natural history, pathophysiology and evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Disease-a-Month. doi:10.1016/j.disamonth.2019.02.001
6 Yamasaki T, Hemond C, Eisa M, Ganocy S, Fass R. The Changing Epidemiology of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Are Patients Getting Younger?. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2018;24(4):559–569. doi:10.5056/jnm18140
7 Unusual Symptoms and GERD by J. Patrick Waring, M.D., Digestive Healthcare of Georgia, Atlanta, GA; and IFFGD publication: What Else Can We Attribute to GERD? by W. Grant Thompson, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., Emeritus Professor of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
8 Batista AO, Nascimento WV, Cassiani RA, Silva ACV, Alves LMT, Alves DC, et al. Prevalence of non-obstructive dysphagia in patients with heartburn and regurgitation. Clinics. 2020;75:e1556
9 Lynch K.L., Katzka D.A. (2020) Dysphagia: How to Recognize and Narrow the Differential. In: Patel D., Kavitt R., Vaezi M. (eds) Evaluation and Management of Dysphagia. Springer, Cham
10 Muller C., Tapaskar N., Kavitt R.T. (2020) Medical Treatment of GERD. In: Patti M., Di Corpo M., Schlottmann F. (eds) Foregut Surgery. Springer, Cham
11 Nirwan, J., Yousaf, M., Conway, B., & Ghori, M. U. (2019). Management of Gastrointestinal Disorders and the Pharmacist's Role: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: GERD. In Z-U-D. Babar (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Pharmacy Practice and Clinical Pharmacy (1 ed.) Elsevier Ltd.
12 Ness-Jensen, E., Hveem, K., El-Serag, H., & Lagergren, J. (2016). Lifestyle Intervention in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 14(2), 175–182.e3. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2015.04.176
13 Morozov S, Isakov V, Konovalova M. Fiber-enriched diet helps to control symptoms and improves esophageal motility in patients with non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2018;24(21):2291–2299. doi:10.3748/wjg.v24.i21.2291
14 Vakil NB, Traxler B, Levine D. Dysphagia in patients with erosive esophagitis: prevalence, severity, and response to proton pump inhibitor treatment. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;2:665–8.
15 Herszényi L, Bakucz T, Barabás L, Tulassay Z: Pharmacological Approach to Gastric Acid Suppression: Past, Present, and Future. Dig Dis 2020;38(suppl 2):104-111. doi: 10.1159/000505204
16 DeVault KR, Talley NJ. Insights into the future of gastric acid suppression. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Sep;6(9):524–32.
17 Maradey-Romero C, Fass R. New and future drug development for gastroesophageal reflux disease. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014 Jan;20(1):6–16.
18 Patel D., Kavitt R., Vaezi M. (eds) Evaluation and Management of Dysphagia. Springer, Cham 2020
19 Hasak S, Brunt LM, Wang D, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with postfundoplication dysphagia. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;17(10):1982-90.

 

100% FRUIT JUICE – JUST ANOTHER SUGARY DINK? - pg 16 - 18

1 National Diet and Nutrition Survey Years 1 to 9 of the Rolling Programme (2008/2009-2016/2017): Time trend and income analyses. www.gov.uk/government/statistics/ndns-time-trend-and-income-analyses-for-years-1-to-9. Jan 2019
2 Ruxton C (2018). What do Europe’s health professionals think about fruit juice? CN Focus 10: 36-38
3 Gibson S and Ruxton C (2016). Fruit juice consumption is associated with intakes of whole fruit and vegetables, as well as non-milk extrinsic sugars: a secondary analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 75(OCE3), E259. doi:10.1017/S0029665116002743
4 Aschoff JK et al (2015). Bioavailability of β-cryptoxanthin is greater from pasteurised orange juice than from fresh oranges – a randomised crossover study. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Oct; 59(10): 1896-904. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500327. Epub 2015 Jul 20
5 Aschoff JK et al (2016). Urinary excretion of Citrus flavanones and their major catabolites after consumption of fresh oranges and pasteurised orange juice: A randomised crossover study. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Dec; 60(12): 2602-2610. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201600315
6 Silveira JQ et al (2014). Pharmacokinetics of flavanone glycosides after ingestion of single doses of fresh-squeezed orange juice versus commercially processed orange juice in healthy humans. J Agric Food Chem 62: 12576-84
7 Li C and Schluesener H (2017). Health-promoting effects of the citrus flavanone hesperidin. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 57: 613-631
8 Ros-Chumillas M et al (2007). Quality and shelf life of orange juice aseptically packaged in PET bottles. J Food Eng 79: 234-242. 17
9 Klimczak I et al (2007). Effect of storage on the content of polyphenols, vitamin C and the antioxidant activity of orange juices. J Food Compos Anal 20: 313-322
10 Büsing F et al (2019). High intake of orange juice and cola differently affects metabolic risk in healthy subjects. Clin Nutr. 38(2): 812-819
11 Atkinson et al (2008). International Tables of Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load Values. Diab Care. 31: 2281-2283
12 Kerimi A et al (2019). Effect of the flavonoid hesperidin on glucose and fructose transport, sucrase activity and glycaemic response to orange juice in a crossover trial on healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 121: 782-792
13 Murphy MM et al (2017). 100% Fruit juice and measures of glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Journal of Nutritional Science 6 (e59): 1-15
14 Xi et al (2014). Intake of fruit juice and incidence of Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta- analysis. PLoS ONE. 9(3): e93471
15 Rangel-Huerta OD et al (2015). Normal or High Polyphenol Concentration in Orange Juice Affects Antioxidant Activity, Blood Pressure, and Body Weight in Obese or Overweight Adults. J Nutr 145: 1808-16
16 Rocha DMUP et al (2017). Orange juice modulates proinflammatory cytokines after high-fat saturated meal consumption. Food Funct 8: 4396-4403
17 Scheffers FR et al (2019). Pure fruit juice and fruit consumption and the risk of CVD: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study. British Journal of Nutrition. 121(3): 351-359
18 Unno T et al (2015). Hesperetin Modifies the Composition of Faecal Microbiota and Increases Cecal Levels of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Rats. J Agric Food Chem. 63: 7952-7
19 GBD (2017) Diet Collaborators. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2019 May 11; 393 (10184): 1958-1972. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30041-8

GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE AND DYSPHAGIA - pg 13 - 16

1 G Richard Locke III, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, MN, The Prevalence and Impact of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease 19 September 2019
2 World Gastroenterology Organisation Global Guidelines. GERD Global Perspective on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. J Clin Gastroenterol Volume 51, Number 6, July 2017
3 Eusebi LH, Ratnakumaran R, Yuan Y, Solaymani-Dodaran M, Bazzoli F and Ford AC (2017). Global prevalence of, and risk factors for, gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms: a meta-analysis. Gut, 67(3), 430-440. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2016-313589
4 Kamal AN, Clarke JO. (2020) Advances in Testing for Dysphagia. In: Patel D., Kavitt R., Vaezi M. (eds) Evaluation and Management of Dysphagia. Springer, Cham
5 Chatila, A. T., Nguyen, M. T. T., Krill, T., Roark, R., Bilal, M., & Reep, G. (2019). Natural history, pathophysiology and evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Disease-a-Month. doi:10.1016/j.disamonth.2019.02.001
6 Yamasaki T, Hemond C, Eisa M, Ganocy S, Fass R. The Changing Epidemiology of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Are Patients Getting Younger?. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2018;24(4):559–569. doi:10.5056/jnm18140
7 Unusual Symptoms and GERD by J. Patrick Waring, M.D., Digestive Healthcare of Georgia, Atlanta, GA; and IFFGD publication: What Else Can We Attribute to GERD? by W. Grant Thompson, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., Emeritus Professor of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
8 Batista AO, Nascimento WV, Cassiani RA, Silva ACV, Alves LMT, Alves DC, et al. Prevalence of non-obstructive dysphagia in patients with heartburn and regurgitation. Clinics. 2020;75:e1556
9 Lynch K.L., Katzka D.A. (2020) Dysphagia: How to Recognize and Narrow the Differential. In: Patel D., Kavitt R., Vaezi M. (eds) Evaluation and Management of Dysphagia. Springer, Cham
10 Muller C., Tapaskar N., Kavitt R.T. (2020) Medical Treatment of GERD. In: Patti M., Di Corpo M., Schlottmann F. (eds) Foregut Surgery. Springer, Cham
11 Nirwan, J., Yousaf, M., Conway, B., & Ghori, M. U. (2019). Management of Gastrointestinal Disorders and the Pharmacist's Role: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: GERD. In Z-U-D. Babar (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Pharmacy Practice and Clinical Pharmacy (1 ed.). Elsevier Ltd.
12 Ness-Jensen, E., Hveem, K., El-Serag, H., & Lagergren, J. (2016). Lifestyle Intervention in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 14(2), 175–182.e3. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2015.04.176
13 Morozov S, Isakov V, Konovalova M. Fiber-enriched diet helps to control symptoms and improves esophageal motility in patients with non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2018;24(21):2291–2299. doi:10.3748/wjg.v24.i21.2291
14 Vakil NB, Traxler B, Levine D. Dysphagia in patients with erosive esophagitis: prevalence, severity, and response to proton pump inhibitor treatment. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;2:665–8.
15 Herszényi L, Bakucz T, Barabás L, Tulassay Z: Pharmacological Approach to Gastric Acid Suppression: Past, Present, and Future. Dig Dis 2020;38(suppl 2):104-111. doi: 10.1159/000505204
16 DeVault KR, Talley NJ. Insights into the future of gastric acid suppression. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Sep;6(9):524–32.
17 Maradey-Romero C, Fass R. New and future drug development for gastroesophageal reflux disease. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014 Jan;20(1):6–16.
18 Patel D., Kavitt R., Vaezi M. (eds) Evaluation and Management of Dysphagia. Springer, Cham 2020
19 Hasak S, Brunt LM, Wang D, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with postfundoplication dysphagia. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;17(10):1982-90.

CHOLESTEROL: WHY IT MATTERS - pg 17 - 18

1 BBC. NHS to pioneer cholesterol-busting jab [online] (2020). Available at: www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-51091083 Accessed 24th January 2020
2 www.gov.uk/government/news/new-heart-disease-drug-to-be-made-available-for-nhs-patients
3 Pedersen JI and Kirkhus B. Health aspects of saturated fatty acids. Reducing Saturated Fats in Foods. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. 2011, p 77-97
4 Ayaori M and Ikewaki K. Chapter 5 – Role of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters A1 and G1 in Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Artherosclerosis. The HDL Handbook (Second Edition). 2014. p 103-131
5 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction, including lipid modification [online] (2016). Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg181/chapter/1-Recommendations Accessed 24th January 2020
6 NHS. Statin [online] (2018). Available at: www.nhs.uk/conditions/statins/ Accessed 24th January 2020
7 NHS. How to lower your cholesterol [online] (2019). Available at: www.nhs.uk/conditions/high-cholesterol/how-to-lower-your-cholesterol/ Accessed 24th January 2020
8 Blesso CN and Fernandez ML (2018). Dietary Cholesterol, Serum Lipids and Heart Disease: Are Eggs Working for or Against You? Nutrients. 10(4): 426.
9 British Heart Foundation. BHF Statistics Factsheet – UK [online] (2019). Available at: www.bhf.org.uk/what-we-do/our-research/heart-statistics. Accessed 24th January 2020
10 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/saturated-fats-and-health-sacn-report
11 Sellem L (2020). Saturated Fat and Health: friend or foe? Network Health Digest Feb issue 151, p 13-15. http://library.myebook.com/NHD/network-health-digest-february-20-issue-151-1/2245/#page/13

ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGES FOR EATING AND DRINKING - pg 19 -21

1 www.dementiastatistics.org/statistics/numbers-of-people-in-the-uk/
2 Prince M et al (2014). Dementia UK: Update Second Edition report produced by King’s College London and the London School of Economics for the Alzheimer’s Society
3 www.dementiastatistics.org/statistics/different-types-of-dementia/
4 G Livingston et al. Dementia prevention, intervention and care. The Lancet. July 2017
5 www.scie.org.uk/dementia/after-diagnosis/communication/understanding-dementia.asp
6 https://research.bournemouth.ac.uk/project/understanding-nutrition-and-dementia/
7 Eating and Drinking Well with Dementia – A Guide for Care Staff. Ageing and Dementia Research Centre, Bournemouth University 2018
8 Eating and Drinking Well with Dementia – A Guide for Family Carers and Friends. Ageing and Dementia Research Centre, Bournemouth University 2019

COW’S MILK PROTEIN ALLERGY: PRACTICAL DIETETIC MANAGEMENT – FROM DIAGNOSIS TO DISCHARGE - pg 23 - 28

1 Nwaru BI, Hickstein L, Panesar SS, Roberts G, Muraro A, Sheikh A. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Allergy. 2014, 69, 992-1007
2 Shoemaker et al. Incidence and natural history of challenge proven cow’s milk allergy in European children – EuroPrevall birth cohort. Allergy. 2015 70; 963-972
3 Vandenplas Y, Benninga M, Broekaert I, Falconer J, Gottrand F, Guarino A, Lifschitz C, Lionetti P, Orel R, Papadopoulou A. Functional gastrointestinal disorder algorithms focus on early recognition, parental reassurance and nutritional strategies. Acta Paediatrica. 2016, 105, 244-252
4 Sicherer SH. Epidemiology of food allergy. Journal of Allergy Clinical Immunology. 2011, 127, 594-602
5 NHS Digital. Prescription cost analysis: England, 2017. https://digital.nhs.uk/data-andinformation/publications/statistical/prescription-cost-analysis/prescription-cost-analysisengland-2017 . Accessed July 2019
6 Venter C, Patil V, Grundy J et al. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of food hypersensitivity in the first 10 years of life. Pediatric Allergy & Immunology 2016. 27: 452-8
7 Venter C, Pereira B, Voigt K et al. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of food hypersensitivity in the first 3 years of life. Allergy. 2008. 63: 354-9
8 Werkstetter K et al. Diagnosis and management of cow’s milk protein allergy – How big the gap between ideal and reality? A quality-of-care survey in Europe. Journal of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2018. 66(2): 399-400
9 Madrazo J et al. International survey identifies educational needs around the management of infants with cow’s milk allergy and lactose intolerance. Thematic Poster Session 09. EAACI Congress. 26-30 May 2018
10 Greenhawt M. Food allergy quality of life and living with food allergy. Current Opinion in Allergy & Clinical Immunology. 2016; 16: 284
11 Knibb RC, Stalker C. Validation of the Food Allergy Quality of Life-Parental Burden Questionnaire in the UK. Quality of life researcher. F13; 22: 1841.
12 Walsh J, O’Flynn N. Diagnosis and assessment of food allergy in children and young people in primary care and community settings: NICE clinical guideline. British Journal of General Practice. 2011, 61, 473-475
13 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guideline [CG116]. Food allergy in children and young people. Diagnosis and assessment of food allergy in children and young people in primary care and community settings. 2011. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg116/evidence/full-guideline-136470061 (accessed July 2019)
14 Skypala IJ, Venter C, Meyer R, deJong NW, Fox AT, Groetch M, Oude Elberink JN, Sprikkelman A, Diamandi L, Vlieg-Boerstra BJ et al. The development of a standardised diet history tool to support the diagnosis of food allergy. Clinical and Translational Allergy. 2015, 5, 7
15 Muraro A, Werfel T, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Roberts G, Beyer K, Bindslev-Jensen C et al. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: diagnosis and management of food allergy. Allergy. 2014; 69: 1008-25
16 Koletzko S, Niggemann B, Arato A, Dias JA, Heuschkel R, Husby S, Mearin ML, Papadopoulou A, Ruemmele FM, Staiano A et al. Diagnostic approach and management of cow’s milk protein allergy in infants and children: ESPGHAN GI committee practical guidelines. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2012, 55, 221-229
17 Venter C, Brown T, Meyer R et al. Better recognition, diagnosis and management of non-IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy in infancy: iMAP – an international interpretation of the MAP (Milk Allergy in Primary Care) guideline. Clinical and Translational Allergy 2017(7): 26
18 Sladkevicius E, Nagy E, Lack G, Guest JF. Resource implications and budget impact of managing cow milk allergy in the UK. Journal of Medical Economic. 2010, 13, 119-28
19 Lozinsky A, Meyer R, Anagnostou K, Dziubak R,Reeve K, Godwin H, Fox A, Shah N. Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy from Diagnosis to Management: A Very Different Journey for General Practitioners and Parents. Children. 2015 2(3): 317-29
20 Bhatia J and Greer F. Use of Soy Protein-based Formulas in Infant Feeding. Pediatrics. 2008. 121: 1062-1068
21 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2016). Vitamin D and health. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/537616/SACN_Vitamin_D_and_Health_report.pdf Accessed July 2019
22 Francavilla R et al. Effect of lactose on gut microbiota and metabolome of infants with cow’s milk allergy. Paediatric Allergy and Immunology. 2012. 23(5): 420-7
23 Luyt,D, Ball H, Makwana N, Green MR, Bravin K, Nasser SM, Clark AT. BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of cow’s milk allergy. Clinical and experimental allergy. 2014. 44(5): 642-72
24 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2018) Feeding in the first year of life. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/725530/SACN_report_on_Feeding_in_the_First_Year_of_Life.pdf (accessed July 2019)
25 BSACI Early feeding guidance. www.bsaci.org/about/early-feeding-guidance (Accessed July 2019)
26 Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Katz Y, Mehr SS, Koletzko S. Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2015, 135, 1114-24
27 Skripak JM, Matsui EC, Mudd K, Wood RA. The natural history of IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2007. 120, 1172-77
28 Fiocchi A, Brozek J, Schünemann H et al. World Allergy Organisation (WAO) diagnosis and rationale for action against cow’s milk allergy (DRACMA) guidelines. World Allergy Organisation Journal. 2010. 3(4): 57-161

NUTRITION IN NURSERIES - pg 29 - 31

1 NHS (2018). Health Survey for England 2017. Adult and child overweight and obesity. Available at: http://healthsurvey.hscic.gov.uk/media/78619/HSE17-Adult-Child-BMI-rep.pdf [Accessed 29/01/2020]
2 PHE (2017). National Dental Epidemiology Programme for England: oral health survey of five-year-old children 2017. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/768368/NDEP_for_England_OH_Survey_5yr_2017_Report.pdf [Accessed 02/01/2020]
3 Department of Education (2019). Survey of Childcare and Early Years Providers: Main Summary, England, 2019. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/845080/SCEYP_2019_Main_Report_Nov19.pdf [Accessed 02/01/2020]
4 Department for Education (2017). Statutory framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage Setting the standards for learning, development and care for children from birth to five. Available at: www.foundationyears.org.uk/files/2017/03/EYFS_STATUTORY_FRAMEWORK_2017.pdf [Accessed 29/01/2020]
5 Action for Children (2017). Voluntary food and drink guidelines for Early Years settings in England. Available at: www.foundationyears.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Eat-Better-Start-Better1.pdf [Accessed 29/01/2020]
6 School Food Plan (2019). School Food Standards. Available at: www.schoolfoodplan.com/actions/school-food-standards/ [Accessed 29/01/2020]
7 Benjamin-Neelon SE, Burgoine T, Hesketh KR and Monsivais P (2015). Nutrition Practices in Nurseries in England. Comparison with national guidelines. Appetite, 85 (1), p 22-29
8 Parker M, Lloyd-Williams F, Weston G, Macklin J and McFaddon K (2011). Nursery nutrition in Liverpool: an exploration of practice and nutritional analysis of food provided. Public Health Nutrition, 14 (10), p 1867-75
9 Er V, Dias KI, Papadaki A, White J, Wells S, Ward DS et al. Association of diet in nurseries and physical activity with zBMI in 2-4-year olds in England: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2018;18: 1262
10 Early Years Foundation Stage (2016). The Early Years Nutrition Partnership: A Collection of Views from Partners. Available at: www.eynpartnership.org/sites/default/files/eyn_partnership_a_collection_of_views_from_partnerviews_october_2016.pdf [Accessed 29/01/2020]
11 McSweeney LA, Rapley T, Summerbell CD et al. Perceptions of nursery staff and parent views of healthy eating promotion in preschool settings: an exploratory qualitative study. BMC Public Health 16, 841 (2016)
12 Ceeda (2019). 2019 Annual Report. Available at: https://aboutearlyyears.co.uk/ReportDownload/DownloadReport/d60d61dd-91c8-41bd-940a-5661e43407d7?guid=eb414087-6770-4c34-ae14-63263d896e5b [Accessed 29/01/2020]
13 Sonntag D (2017). Why early prevention of childhood obesity is more than a medical concern: A health economic approach. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. Vol 70(3), p 175-178
14 Pandita A, Sharma D, Pandita D, Pawar S, Tariq M and Kaul A (2016). Childhood obesity: Prevention is better than cure. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy. Vol 9, p 83-89

SMALL INTESTINAL BACTERIAL OVERGROWTH: A REVIEW OF SYMPTOMS, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT - pg 33 - 35

1 Dukowicz AC, Lacy BE and Levine GM. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Comprehensive Review. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 2007
2 Grace E et al. Review article: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth – prevalence, clinical features, current and developing diagnostic tests and treatment. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 2013
3 Ford AC et al. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2009
4 Shah A et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 2019
5 Guidelines for the investigation of chronic diarrhoea in adults: BSG, 3rd edition – published by British Society of Gastroenterology, 2018. Available online at www.bsg.org.uk/asset/A3F5BFAA-8E0B-4177-990FD7CDC1706B13/ (accessed 04/02/2020)
6 Ali Rezaie et al. How to Test and Treat Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: An Evidence-Based Approach. Curr Gastroenterol Rep, 2016
7 Khoshini R et al. A systematic review of diagnostic tests for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Dig Dis Sci, 2008
8 King CE, Toskes PP. Comparison of the 1-gram [14C] xylose, 10-gram lactulose-H2, and 80-gram glucose-H2 breath tests in patients with small intestine bacterial overgrowth. Gastroenterology, 1986
9 Khin-Maung-U, Tin-Aye, Ku-Tin-Myint, Tin-Oo, Myo-Khin, Thackway SA, Connor SJ, Bolin TD, Duncombe VM. In vitro hydrogen production by enteric bacteria cultured from children with small bowel bacterial overgrowth. J Pediatr Gas- troenterol Nutr, 1992
10 Shah SC. Meta‚Äźanalysis: antibiotic therapy for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 2013
11 Zhong C. Probiotics for Preventing and Treating Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Current Evidence. J Clin Gastroenterol, 2017
12 Leventogiannis K et al. Effect of a Preparation of Four Probiotics on Symptoms of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Association with Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins, 2019
13 Lauritano EC. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth recurrence after antibiotic therapy. Am J Gastroenterol, 2008
14 Ziegler CR, Cole CR. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth in adults: a potential contributor to intestinal failure. Curr Gastroenterol Rep, 2008
15 Ford AC et al. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2009

SPECIAL LOW-PROTEIN FOODS - pg 36 - 38

1 Rocha JC, Macdonald A. Dietary intervention in the management of phenylketonuria: current perspectives. Pediatr Heal Med Ther. 2016; 7: 155-163
2 Advisory Committee on Borderline Substances (2019). Nutritional legislation and other guidance with which products must comply. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/792996/Appendix3.pdf (accessed 16 Feb 2020)
3 Food Standard Agency (2014). Food Information Regulations 2014: Summary guidance for food business operators and enforcement officers in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. London. www.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/media/document/fir-guidance2014.pdf (accessed 16 Feb 2020)
4 European Commission. Commission Directive 1999/21/EC on dietary foods for special medical purposes. Official Journal of the European Union. 1999; 42: 29-36
5 Ford S, O’Driscoll M, MacDonald A. Prescribing issues experienced by people living with phenylketonuria in the UK. Mol Genet Metab Reports. 2019; 21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2019.100527
6 MacDonald A, Van Rijn M, Feillet F, Lund AM, Bernstein L, Bosch AM et al. Adherence issues in inherited metabolic disorders treated by low natural protein diets. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012; 61(4): 289-295

VITAMIN D: UK REQUIREMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS - pg 39 - 42

1 BMJ (2016). Vitamin D deficiency. BMJ Best Practice
2 Tripkovic L, Lambert H, Hart K, Colin P (2012). Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 95(6): 1357-1364
3 El-Fakhri N, Mcdevitt H, Shaikh MG, Halsey C and Ahmed F (2014). Vitamin D and its Effects on Glucose Homeostasis, Cardiovascular Function and Immune Function. Hormone Research in Paediatrics. 81
4 SACN (2016). Vitamin D and Health [Accessible from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/537616/SACN_Vitamin_D_and_Health_report.pdf]
5 Cardwell G, Bornman JF, James AP and Black LJ (2018). A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D. Nutrients, 10(10), 1498
6 Ranathunga et al (2019). Vitamin D and muscle function in healthy UK adults >70 years. J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol, 190: 256-262
7 Ekmekcioglu et al (2017). Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D associations with non-communicable diseases: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Environ Pub Health. 14:127
8 Patel et al (2013) Vitamin D status of UK adults (>45 years) of South Asian or Afro-Caribbean ethnicity. Int J Cardiol; 167: 2172-6
9 Roy DK, Berry JL, Pye SR, Adams JE, Swarbrick CM, King Y, Silman AJ, O'Neill TW (2007). Vitamin D status and bone mass in UK South Asian women. Bone, 40(1): 200-204
10 Hyppönen E, Power C (2007). Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85(3): 860-868
11 Javaid et al (2006). Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study. Lancet 367: 36-43
12 NHS Digital (2018). A count of finished admission episodes (FAEs) with a primary diagnosis of Scurvy, rickets and malnutrition, broken down by age groups for the years 2007-08 to 2017-18 [Accessible from: https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/find-data-and-publications/supplementary-information/2018-supplementary-information-files/hospital-admissions-for-scurvy-rickets-and-malnutrition]
13 Vieth R, Pinto TR, Reen BS, Wong MM (2002). Vitamin D poisoning by table sugar (case report). Lancet. 359(9307): 672
14 Koutkia P, Chen TC, Holick MF (2001). Vitamin D intoxication associated with an over-the-counter supplement. N Engl J Med. 5; 345(1): 66-7

SLIMMING PILLS: A GATEWAY TO EATING DISORDERS - pg 43 - 45

1 www.gov.uk/government/organisations/medicines-and-healthcare-products-regulatory-agency
2 www.gov.uk/government/news/new-research-shows-desperate-dieters-in-danger-the-secret-world-of-online-slimming-pills
3 Survey run at Priory hospital, Chelmsford

FACE TO FACE - pg 46 - 47

1 The Florence Nightingale Museum in London is a delightful and welcoming venue, currently celebrating a new exhibition: Nightingale in 200 objects, people and places. www.florence-nightingale.co.uk/
2 All Florence Nightingale quotes are mainly from her book published in1860: Notes on Nursing; what it is and what it is not. Available on Amazon