References June / July Issue 155

LOCKDOWN FOOD TRENDS - pg 7-8

More information:

Flour:
https://www.agriland.co.uk/farming-news/uk-facing-flour-shortages-as-baking-becomes-lockdown-pastime/
http://www.nabim.org.uk/covid-19-maintaining-the-supply-of-flour

Canned foods:
https://www.thegrocer.co.uk/category-reports/the-pandemic-pantry-ambient-and-canned-goods-category-report-2020/604157.article
Rob Brown, 24th May 2020. The Pandemic Pantry: ambient and canned goods category report 2020.

Milk:
https://www.gov.uk/government/news/dairy-industry-to-join-together-to-manage-milk-supply

Fruit and veg:
http://www.oecd.org/agriculture/fruit-vegetables/oecd-covid-19-impact-on-fruit-and-vegetables-trade.pdf

COVID-19: THE FUTURE FOR DIET AND NUTRITION - pg 9 -13

1 Lanham-New SA, et al Vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 virus/COVID-19 disease. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention and Health 2020;0. Doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000089
2 Alec Mattinson, Harry Holmes Are supermarkets doing enough to keep the prices of groceries down? The Grocer Online 24 April 2020. https://www.thegrocer.co.uk/prices-and-promotions/are-supermarkets-doing-enough-to-keep-the-prices-of-groceries-down/604284.article
3 https://www.england.nhs.uk/publication/type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-and-covid-19-related-mortality-in-england/
4 Caussy C, Pattou F, Wallet F et al (2020). Prevalence of obesity among adult inpatients with COVID-19 in France. Published:18th May2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30160-1
5 https://www.vegansociety.com

REFEEDING SYNDROME IN CRITICAL CARE - pg 15 - 17 

1 NICE nutrition support for adults CG32 2006 (updated 2011, 2017)
2 NICE nutrition support for adults CG32 2006 reviewed and updated 2011 (16.5.11-27.5.11)
3 Padar M et al (2017). Implementation of enteral feeding protocol in ICU before and after study. World Journal Critical Care Medicine, Feb 4, 6(1): 56-64
4 PENG Pocket Guide to Nutrition; updated Edition 2018
5 Weijs PJ, Stepel SN, de Groot SD et al. Optimal protein and energy nutrition decreases mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients a prospective observational cohort study. JPEN Parenteral nutrition 2012;:36(1): 60-68
6 ASPEN consensus recommendations for refeeding syndrome. Joshua SV, da Silva DO et al (2020). Nutrition in clinical practice; Vol 35(2): 178-195
7 Keys A (1990). Recollections of pioneers in nutrition: from starvation to cholesterol, J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 9: 288-291
8 Temporal Changes in Plasma Concentration of Leptin, IGF-1, Insulin and Metabolites Under Extended Fasting and Refeeding Conditions in Growing Lambs Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Winter; 11(1): 34-40. Published online 2012 Dec 21
9 Korbonits M, Blaine D, Elia M, Powell-Tuck J. Metabolic and hormonal changes during the refeeding period of prolonged fasting. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Aug;157(2): 157-66

DIET AND MENTAL HEALTH: AN UPDATE ON THE EVIDENCE - pg 19 - 21

1. World Health Organisation (2020). Depression https://www.who.int/health-topics/depression#tab=tab_1 (Accessed 6th March 2020)
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3. Parletta N, Aljeesh Y, and Baune B (2016). Health Behaviours, Knowledge, Life Satisfaction and Wellbeing in People with Mental Illness Across Four Countries and Comparisons with Normative Sample. Front Psychiatry (7), 145
4. Public Health England (2019). Wellbeing and Mental Health: Applying All Our Health https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/wellbeing-in-mental-health-applying-all-our-health/wellbeing-in-mental-health-applying-all-our-health (Accessed 7th March 2020)
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6. Tyrrell J., Mulugeta, A., Wood, A., Zhou, A., Beaumont, R., Tuke, R., Jones, S., Ruth, K., Yaghootkar, H., Sharp, S., Thompson, W., Ji, Y., Harrison, J., Freathy, R., Murray, A., Weedon, M., Lewis, C., Frayling, T., and Hyppönen, E. (2019) “Using genetics to understand the causal influence of higher BMI on depression” International Journal of Epidemiology (48) 834–848
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8. Firth, J., Marx, W., Dash, S., Carney, R., Teasdale, S., Solmi, M., Stubbs, B., Schuch, F., Carvalho, A., Jacka, F., and Sarris, J. (2019) “The effects of dietary improvement on symptoms of depression and anxiety: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials” Pyschosomatic Medicine (3), 265-280
9. Hari, J. (2018) Lost Connections London: Bloomsbury.
10. Somma, C., Scarano, E., Barrea, L., Zhukouskaya, V., Savastano, S., Mele, C., Scacchi, M., Aimaretti, G., Colao, A., and Marzullo, P. (2017) “Vitamin D and Neurological Diseases: An Endocrine View.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences (11), 2482
11. Menon, V., Kar, S., Suthar, N., and Nebhinani, N. (2020) “Vitamin D and depression: A critical appraisal of the evidence and future directions” Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine (1), 11-21
12. Choukri, M., Conner, T., Haszard, J., Harper, M., Houghton, L. (2018) “Effect of vitamin D supplementation on depressive symptoms and psychological wellbeing in healthy adult women: A double-blind randomised controlled clinical trial”. Journal of Nutritional Science 7 (23)
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14. Kotlarczyk, M., Perera, S., Ferchak, M., Nace, D., Resnick, N., and Greenspan, S. (2017) “Vitamin D deficiency is associated with functional decline and falls in frail elderly women despite supplementation”. Osteoporosis International (4), 1347-1353
15. Scientific Advisory Commission on Nutrition (2016) Vitamin D and Health https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/537616/SACN_Vitamin_D_and_Health_report.pdf (Accessed 9th March 2020)
16. Blondeau, N. Nguemeni, C., Debruyne, D., Piens, M., Wu, X., Pan, H., Hu, X., Gandin, C., Lipsky, R., and Plumier, J. (2009) “Subchronic alpha-linolenic acid treatment enhances brain plasticity and exerts an antidepressant effect: A versatile potential therapy for stroke”. Neuropsychopharmacology (34) 2548–2559
17. He, K., Liu, K., Daviglus, M., Jenny, N., Mayer-Davis, E., Jiang, R., Steffen, L., Siscovick, D., Tsai, M., Herrington, D. (2009) “Associations of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish with biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial activation (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA])”. American Journal of Cardiology (103) 1238–1243
18. Marx, W., Moseley, G., Berk, M., and Jacka, F. (2017) “Nutritional Psychiatry: The Present State of the Evidence”. Proceedings of the Nutritional Society (4), 427-436
19. Zhang, R., Sun, J., Li, Y., and Zhang. D. (2020) “Associations of n-3, n-6 Fatty Acids Intakes and n-6:n-3 Ratio with the Risk of Depressive Symptoms: NHANES 2009–2016”. Nutrients (1), 24
20. Bai, Z., Bo, A., Wu, S., Gai, Q., and Chi, I. (2018) “ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduction of depressive symptoms in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Journal of Affective Disorders. (241) 241–248
21. Grosso, G., Micek, A.; Marventano, S.; Castellano, S.; Mistretta, A.; Pajak, A.; Galvano, F. (2016) “Dietary n-3 PUFA, fish consumption and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies”. Journal of Affective Disorders. (205) 269–281.
22. Keshavarz, S.A.; Mostafavi, S.A.; Akhondzadeh, S.; Mohammadi, M.R.; Hosseini, S.; Eshraghian, M.R.; Chamari, M. (2018) “Omega-3 supplementation effects on body weight and depression among dieter women with co-morbidity of depression and obesity compared with the placebo: A randomized clinical trial”. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN (25) 37–43
23. Jacka, F., O'Neil, A., Opie, R., Itsiopoulos, C., Cotton, S., Mohebbi, M., Castle, D., Dash, S., Mihalopoulos, C., Chatterton, M., Brazionis, L., Dean, O., Hodge, A., and Berk, M. (2017) “A randomised controlled trial of dietary improvement for adults with major depression (the 'SMILES' trial)”. BMC Medical (1), 23
24. Parletta, N., Cho, J., Wilson, A., Bogomolova, S., Villani, A., Itsiopoulos, C., Niyonsenga, T., Blunden, S., Meyer, B., and O’Dea, K. (2019) “A Mediterranean-style dietary intervention supplemented with fish oil improves diet quality and mental health in people with depression: A randomized controlled trial (HELFIMED).” Nutritional Neuroscience (7), 474-487
25. Nermin, G., Beser, N., Polat, U., and Koc, M. (2019) “Suicide Risk and Depression in Individuals with Chronic Illness.” Community Mental Health Journal (55), 840-848
26. Cavin, J., Cuddihey, MacNaughton, W., and Sharkey, K. (2020) “Acute regulation of intestinal ion transport and permeability in response to luminal nutrients: the role of the enteric nervous system” American Journal of Physiology, Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology (2), 254-264
27. Oddy, W., Allen, K., Trapp, G,, Ambrosini, G., Black, L., Huang, R., Rzehak, P., Runions, K., Pan, F., Beilin, L., and Mori, T. (2018) “Dietary patterns, body mass index and inflammation: Pathways to depression and mental health problems in adolescents.” Brain Behaviour and Immunity (69), 428-439
28. Miller, A., and Raison, C. (2016) “The role of inflammation in depression: From evolutionary imperative to modern treatment target”. Natural Review of Immunology 16 (22-34)
29. Steenbergen, L., Sellaro, R., van Hemert, S., Bosch, J., and Colzato, L. (2015) “A randomized controlled trial to test the effect of multispecies probiotics on cognitive reactivity to sad mood”. Brain Behaviour and Immunity (48), 258-264
30. Akkasheh, G., Kashani-Poor, Z., Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, M., Jafari, P., Akbari, H., Taghizadeh, M., Esmaillzadeh, A. (2016). “Clinical and metabolic response to probiotic administration in patients with major depressive disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial” Nutrition (3) 315-320
31. Rudski, L., Ostrowska, L., Pawlak, D., Malus, A., Pawlak, K., Waszkiewicz, N., and Szulc, A. (2019) “Probiotic Lactobacillus Plantarum 299v decreases kynurenine concentration and improves cognitive functions in patients with major depression: A double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled study.” Psychoneuroendocrinology (100), 213-222
32. Cheung S, Goldenthal A, Uhlemann A, Mann J, Miller J and Sublette, M (2019). Systematic Review of Gut Microbiota and Major Depression. Frontiers in Psychiatry. (10), 3
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CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND POVERTY: A DOUBLE STIGMA - pg 23 - 25

1 NHS Digital (2019). National Child Measurement Programme, England 2018/19 School Year. Health and Social Care Information Centre. Accessed at https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/statistics-on-obesity-physical-activity-and-diet/statistics-on-obesity-physical-activity-and-diet-england-2019/part-4-childhood-obesity
2 Lockyer S et al (2019). Socio‐economic inequalities in childhood obesity: Can community level interventions help to reduce the gap? Nutrition Bulletin. Vol 44, Issue 4. December 2019, p 381-393. Accessed at: https://doi.org/10.1111/nbu.12410
3 Bann D et al (2018). Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent body-mass index, weight, and height from 1953 to 2015: an analysis of four longitudinal, observational, British birth cohort studies. Lancet. Vol 3, issue 4, pe194-e203, April 01, 2018. Accessed at https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30045-8
4 Department for Work and Pensions (2019). Households Below Average Income: An analysis of the UK income distribution: 1994/95-2017/18 Annual Financial year 2017/18. Published: 28 March 2019. Accessed at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/789997/households-below-average-income-1994-1995-2017-2018.pdf
5 Child Povery Action Group (2020). Child Poverty Facts and Figures. Accessed on 18th February 2020 at https://cpag.org.uk/child-poverty/child-poverty-facts-and-figures
6 Pamela Duncan and Patrick Butler (2017). Children in poor areas exposed to five times as many fast food takeaways. The Guardian. Fri 1 Dec 2017. Accessed at: www.theguardian.com/inequality/2017/dec/01/schoolchildren-poor-areas-exposed-fast-food-takeaways
7 Pont SJ et al (2017). Stigma Experienced by Children and Adolescents With Obesity. Pediatrics, Volume 140, number 6, December 2017:e20173034. Accessed at: https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2017/11/16/peds.2017-3034.full.pdf
8 Makowski AC et al (2019). Social deprivation, gender and obesity: multiple stigma? Results of a population survey from Germany. BMJ Open 2019; 9: e023389. Doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023389. Accessed at: https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/4/e023389
9 Puhl RM (2020). What words should we use to talk about weight? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies examining preferences for weight‐related terminology. Obesity Reviews. 2020; 1-28. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.13008
10 Robert Booth and Kevin Rawlinson (2020). 950,000 apply for universal credit in two weeks of UK lockdown. The Guardian. Wed 1 Apr 2020. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/apr/01/950000-apply-for-universal-credit-in-two-weeks-of-uk-lockdown

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: HYPERTENSION RISK FACTORS - pg 26 - 30

1 World Health Organisation (WHO). Hypertension key facts (online) (2019). www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hypertension
2 Borghi C, Tsioufis K, Agabiti-Rosei E, Burnier M, Cicero AFG, Clement D, Mancia G (2020). Nutraceuticals and blood pressure control. Journal of Hypertension, 38(5), 799-812. doi:10.1097/hjh.0000000000002353
3 Zhuo Mao, Jinghui Li and Weizhen Zhang (November 5th, 2018). Hormonal Regulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis, Cholesterol – Good, Bad and the Heart, Madan L. Nagpal, IntechOpen, Doi: 10.5772/intechopen.76375. Available from: www.intechopen.com/books/cholesterol-good-bad-and-the-heart/hormonal-regulation-of-cholesterol-homeostasis
4 Röhrl C, Stangl H. Cholesterol metabolism-physiological regulation and pathophysiological deregulation by the endoplasmic reticulum. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2018 Sep;168(11-12): 280-285. doi: 10.1007/s10354-018-0626-2. Epub 2018 Feb 27. PMID: 29488036; PMCID: PMC6132555
5 Akyea RK, Kai J, Qureshi N et al (2019). Suboptimal cholesterol response to initiation of statins and future risk of cardiovascular disease. Heart 2019; 105: 975-981
6 Vinereanu D, Dolofan B, Trambitas N, Costache L, Istratoaie O, Darabantiu D, Vittos O (2019). P1679 Blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol control in patients with primary hypertension is far from optimal: results from a large observational, multicentric, prospective study. European Heart Journal, 40 (Supplement_1)
7 Ray KK, Corral P, Morales E and Nicholls SJ (2019). Pharmacological lipid-modification therapies for prevention of ischaemic heart disease: current and future options. The Lancet, 394(10199), 697-708. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(19)31950-6
8 2019 ESC/EAS. Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk. European Heart Journal (2019) 00, 178 doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehz455
9 . Wang B, Jiang X, Cao M, Ge J, Bao Q, Tang L, Chen Y, Li L. Altered Fecal Microbiota Correlates with Liver Biochemistry in Nonobese Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Sci Rep. 2016 Aug 23; 6():32002
10 Kriaa A, Bourgin M, Potiron A, Mkaouar H, Jablaoui A, Gerard P, Rhimi M (2018). Microbial impact on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism: current status and future prospects. Journal of Lipid Research, jlr.R088989. doi:10.1194/jlr.r088989
11 Khare A, Gaur S. Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Lactobacillus Species. Curr Microbiol 77, 638-644 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-01903-w
12 Toral M, Robles-Vera I, de la Visitación N, Romero M, Yang T, Sánchez M, Gómez-Guzmán M, Jiménez R, Raizada MK and Duarte J (2019). Critical Role of the Interaction Gut Microbiota – Sympathetic Nervous System in the Regulation of Blood Pressure. Front. Physiol. 10:231. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00231
13 Toral M, Robles‐Vera I, de la Visitacion N et al. Role of the immune system in vascular function and blood pressure control induced by faecal microbiota transplantation in rats. Acta Physiologica (Oxford, England). 2019; 227: e13285
14 Parniakov O, Mikhrovska M, Toepfl S, Roselló-Soto E, Pinto CA, Saraiva JA and Barba FJ (2020). Current and future strategies to reduce salt consumption. Agri-Food Industry Strategies for Healthy Diets and Sustainability, 155-175. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-817226-1.00006-0
15 He FJ, Tan M, Ma Y and MacGregor GA (2020). Salt Reduction to Prevent Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 75(6), 632-647. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2019.11.055
16 Graudal NA, Hubeck-Graudal T, Jurgens G. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017; 4:CD004022
17 Wu C, Yosef N, Thalhamer T et al. Induction of pathogenic TH17 cells by inducible salt-sensing kinase SGK1. Nature 2013; 496:513-7
18 Mancia G, Oparil S, Whelton PK, McKee M, Dominiczak A, Luft FC, Narula J (2017). The technical report on sodium intake and cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries by the joint working group of the World Heart Federation, the European Society of Hypertension and the European Public Health Association. European Heart Journal, ehw549. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehw549
19 Mukhopadhyay S, Goswami S, Mondal SA. and Dutta D (2020). Dietary fat, salt, and sugar: a clinical perspective of the social catastrophe. Dietary Sugar, Salt and Fat in Human Health, 67-91. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-816918-6.00003-2
20 Huang Liping, Trieu Kathy, Yoshimura Sohei, Neal Bruce, Woodward Mark, Campbell Norm RC et al Effect of dose and duration of reduction in dietary sodium on blood pressure levels: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2020; 368: m315
21 Rodriguez MA, Friedberg JP, DiGiovanni A, Wang B, Wylie-Rosett J, Hyoung S and Natarajan S (2019). A Tailored Behavioural Intervention to Promote Adherence to the DASH Diet. American Journal of Health Behaviour, 43(4), 659-670. doi:10.5993/ajhb.43.4.1
22 Dani-Maree et al. Achieving the Salt Intake Target of 6g/Day in the Current Food Supply in Free-Living Adults Using Two Dietary Education Strategies Ireland. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Volume 110, Issue 5, 763-767
23 Ireland D-M, Clifton PM and Keogh JB (2010). Achieving the Salt Intake Target of 6g/Day in the Current Food Supply in Free-Living Adults Using Two Dietary Education Strategies. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110(5), 763-767. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.02.006

NUTRITION IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS: WHAT WILL THE FUTURE HOLD? - pg 31 -33

1 Cystic Fibrosis Trust (2019). UK Cystic Fibrosis Registry 2018 Annual Data Report. London: Cystic Fibrosis Trust
2 Hollander F, de Roos N and Heijerman H (2017). The optimal approach to nutrition and cystic fibrosis - latest evidence and recommendations. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, 23(6), 556-561 [online] available from journals.lww.com/co-pulmonarymedicine/Abstract/2017/11000/The_optimal_approach_to_nutrition_and_cystic.12.aspx [13 April 2020]
3 Koch C and Høiby N (1993). Pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis. The Lancet, 341(8852), 1065-1069 [online] available from www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/014067369392422P [13 April 2020]
4 Pencharz P and Durie P (2000). Pathogenesis of malnutrition in cystic fibrosis, and its treatment. Clinical Nutrition, 19(6), 387-394 [online] available from www.clinicalnutritionjournal.com/article/S0261-5614(99)90079-1/pdf [13 April 2020]
5 Matel J and Milla C (2009). Nutrition in cystic fibrosis. Respiratory and critical care medicine, 30(5), 579-586 [online] available from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19760545 [13 April 2020]
6 Cystic Fibrosis Trust (2017). Triple Therapy Trial - what's it all about? [online] available from www.cysticfibrosis.org.uk/news/triple-therapy-trial [13 April 2020]
7 Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (2017). CFTR mutation classes [online] available from www.cff.org/What-is-CF/Genetics/Know-Your-CFTR-Mutations-Infographic.pdf [13 April 2020]
8 Shteinberg M and Taylor-Cousar J (2020). Impact of CFTR modulator use on outcomes in people with severe cystic fibrosis lung disease. European Respiratory Review 29(155), 1-8 [online] available from  err.ersjournals.com/content/errev/29/155/190112.full.pdf [13 April 2020]
9 Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (2018). A Phase 3 Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Ivacaftor and VX-661 in Combination With Ivacaftor in Subjects Aged 12 Years and Older With Cystic Fibrosis, Heterozygous for the F508del-cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Mutation’ US national library of medicine [online] available from clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT02392234 [13 April 2020]
10 Vertex (2020). Trikafta. Boston: Vertex

MALABSORPTION: AN OVERVIEW - pg 35 - 37

1 https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/180785-overview
2 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4513829/
3 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK553106/
4 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/13578846_Malabsorption_Syndromes
5 https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/malabsorption
6 https://www.healthline.com/health/malabsorption#causes
7 https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-pt/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/malabsorption-syndromes/overview-of-malabsorption
8 https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/180785-workup#c6
9 https://www.nhdmag.com/malabsorption.html
10 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5873407/
11 Smart KM, Alex G, Hardikar W. Feeding the child with liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;26(5): 810-815
12 Shaw V (ed). Clinical Paediatric Dietetics (4th ed). 2015; 292-301

PROTEIN IN LIVER DISEASE - pg 41 - 43

1 British Liver Trust (2019). Liver Health - British Liver Trust. [online] Available at: www.britishlivertrust.org.uk/liver-information/ [Accessed 1 Feb. 2019]
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3 Morgan MY, Madden A, Soulsby CT, Morris RW. Derivation and validation of a new global method for assessing nutritional status in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology 2006; 44(4): 823-835
4 PENG, Section 16, Liver disease and nutrition support in Adults
5 Verboeket-van de Venne WPHG, Westerterp KR, van Hoek B, Swart GR. Energy expenditure and substrate metabolism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver: effects of the pattern of food intake. Gut 1995: 36: 110-116
6 Swart GR, Zillikens MC, van Vuure JK et al. Effect of late evening meal on nitrogen balance in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. BMJ. 1989; 299(6709): 1202-1203
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8 Muller MJ, Loyal M, Schwarze M et al (1994). Resting energy expenditure and nutritional state in patients with liver cirrhosis before and after transplant. Clinical Nutrition. 13: 145-152
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12 Choi CH, Ahn SH, Kim DY et al (2005). Long-term clinical outcome of large volume paracentesis with intravenous albumin in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a randomised prospective study. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 20: 1225-1222

DIETITIANS AS NON-MEDICAL PRESCRIBERS - pg 47 - 49

1 NHS England (2016). Summary of the responses to the public consultation on proposals to introduce supplementary prescribing by dietitians across the United Kingdom. Retrieved from: https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/dietitians-summary-consult-responses.pdf
2 Royal College of Nursing (2019). Types of Nurse Prescribing. Retrieved from: https://www.rcn.org.uk/get-help/rcn-advice/non-medical-prescribers
3 Department of Health (2005). Supplementary Prescribing by Nurses, Pharmacists, Chiropodists/Podiatrists, Physiotherapists and Radiographers within the NHS in England. Retrieved from https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130124065910/http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4110033.pdf
4 Department of Health (2010). Evaluation of Nurse and Pharmacist Independent Prescribing. Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/215606/dh_126437.pdf
5 The Human Medicines (Amendment) Regulations 2016 (2016). Proposal for supplementary prescribing dietitians. Retrieved from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukia/2016/39/pdfs/ukia_20160039_en.pdf
6 Tonna AP, Stewart D, West B, McCaig D (2007). Pharmacist prescribing in the UK – a literature review of current practice and research. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 32, 545-556
7 Cant RP, Aroni RA (2008). Exploring dietitians’ verbal and nonverbal communication skills for effective dietitian/patient communication. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-277X.2008.00883.x
8 Weeks G, Johnson G Maclure K, Stewart D (2016). Non‐medical prescribing versus medical prescribing for acute and chronic disease management in primary and secondary care. Cochrane Systematic Review – Intervention Version, https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011227.pub2
9 Stuart L, Fox M, Borthwick A, Saoncella U, Wiles P (2010). Supplementary prescribing: patient, podiatrist and professor perspectives. The Diabetic Foot Journal, (13)3
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