References May Issue 154

PUBLIC HEALTH SCOTLAND - pg 8-9

1 Public Health Reform (2019). About Public Health Scotland. Available at: https://publichealthreform.scot/public-health-scotland/about-public-health-scotland/public-health-scotland-overview. Accessed 24th February 2020
2 Scottish Government (2016). 2015 Review of Public Health in Scotland. Strengthening the Function and Re-Focusing Action for a Healthier Scotland. Available at: www.gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/publications/research-and-analysis/2016/02/2015-review-public-health-scotland-strengthening-function-re-focusing-action-healthier-scotland/documents/00493925-pdf/00493925-pdf/govscot%3Adocument/00493925.pdf. Accessed 24th February 2020
3 The Scottish Public Health Observatory (2020). Recent Mortality Trends. Available at: www.scotpho.org.uk/population-dynamics/recent-mortality-trends/. Accessed 24th February 2020
4 Pudram K, Garratt EA and Esmail A (2015). Hungry? Food Insecurity, Social Stigma and Embarrassment in the UK. Sociology, 50(6), 1072-88
5 NHS Health Scotland (2020). Our context – Public Health in Scotland. Available at: www.healthscotland.scot/our-organisation/our-context-public-health-in-scotland/public-health-challenges. Accessed on 23rd February 2020
6 Henry L (2017). Understanding Food Insecurity Among College Students: Experience, motivation, and local solutions. Annals of Anthropological Practice. 41(1). https://doi.org/10.1111/napa.12108
7 NHS Health Scotland (2019). Alcohol Overview. Available at: www.healthscotland.scot/health-topics/alcohol/alcohol-overview. Accessed 24th February 2020
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10 NHS Health Scotland (2020). Outcome areas and studies of evaluation of MUP. Available at: www.healthscotland.scot/health-topics/alcohol/evaluation-of-minimum-unit-pricing-mup/outcome-areas-and-studies-of-evaluation-of-mup. Accessed 24th February 2020
11 NHS Health Scotland (2019). Mental Health and Wellbeing. Available at: www.healthscotland.scot/health-topics/mental-health-and-wellbeing/overview-of-mental-health-and-wellbeing. Accessed 25th February 2020
12 Stuckler D, Reeves A, Loopstra R, Karanikolos M and McKee M (2017). Austerity and health: the impact in the UK and Europe. European Journal of Public Health, 27(4), 18-21
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14 NHS Health Scotland (2019). Diet and healthy weight. Available at: www.healthscotland.scot/health-topics/diet-and-healthy-weight/obesity. Accessed on the 25th February 2020
15 Tomiyama AJ, Carr D, Granberg EM, Major B, Robinson E, Sutin AR and Brewis A (2018). How and why weight stigma drives the obesity ‘epidemic’ and harms health. BMC Medicine. 16, 123
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PLANT-BASED DIETS AND SUSTAINABILITY - pg 11 -14

1 FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO (2017). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2017. Building resilience for peace and food security. Rome, FAO
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3 Aleksandrowicz L, Green R, Joy EJM, Smith P, Haines A (2016). The impacts of dietary change on greenhouse gas emissions, land use, water use and health: A systematic review. PLOS ONE, 11(11) e0165797. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165797
4 Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) (2019). The state of the world’s biodiversity for food and agriculture. Belanger J and Pilling D (eds.). FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Assessments [online], p 572. Available at: www.fao.org/3/CA3129EN/CA3129EN.pdf. [Accessed 26 February 2020]
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9 Davis C, Bryan J, Hodgson J, Murphy K (2015). Definition of the Mediterranean Diet: A Literature Review. Nutrients, 7(11): 9139-153. doi:10.3390/nu7115459
10 Saez-Almendros S, Obrado B, Bach-Faig A, Serra-Majem L (2013). Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: Beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet. Environmental Health, 12(118). doi:10.1186/1476-069X-12-118
11 Saxe H, Larsen TM, Mogensen L (2012). The global warming potential of two healthy Nordic diets compared with the average Danish diet. Climatic Change, 116: 249-262. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0495-4
12 Saxe H (2014). The New Nordic Diet is an effective tool in environmental protection: it reduces the associated socioeconomic cost of diets. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99(5):1117-1125. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.066746
13 Germani A, Vitiello V, Giusti AM, Pinto A, Donini LM, del Balzo V (2014). Environmental and economic sustainability of the Mediterranean diet. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 65(8): 1-5. doi:10.3109/09637486.2014.945152
14 Ministry of Health of Brazil (2015). Dietary guidelines for Brazilian population. [online]. Available at: http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/publicacoes/dietary_guidelines_brazilian_population.pdf. [Accessed 29 February 2020]
15 NHS (2019). The Eatwell Guide. [online]. Available at: www.nhs.uk/live-well/eat-well/the-eatwell-guide/. [Accessed 29 February 2020]
16 Cobiac LJ, Scarborough P, Kaur A, Rayner M (2016). The Eatwell Guide: Modelling the Health Implications of Incorporating New Sugar and Fibre Guidelines. PLoS One, 11(12): e0167859. doi:10.1371/journal/pone.0167859
17 Carbon Trust (2016). The Eatwell Guide: a More Sustainable Diet, Methodology and Results Summary. [online]. Available at: https://prod-drupal-files.storage.googleapis.com/documents/resource/public/The%20Eatwell%20Guide%20a%20More%20Sustainable%20Diet%20-%20REPORT.pdf. [Accessed 29 February 2020]
18 Scarborough P, Kaur A, Cobiac L, Owens P, Parlesak A, Sweeney K, Rayner M (2016). Eatwell Guide: modelling the dietary and cost implications of incorporating new sugar and fibre guidelines. BMJ Open, 6(2): e013182. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013182
19 Scott C, Sutherland J, Taylor A (2018). The Food Foundation. Affordability of the UK’s Eatwell Guide. [online]. Available at: https://foodfoundation.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Affordability-of-the-Eatwell-Guide_Final_Web-Version.pdf. [Accessed 29 February 2020]
20 British Dietitians Association (2017). Sustainable Diets. [online]. Available at: www.bda.uk.com/resource/sustainable-diets.html. [Accessed 29 February 2020]

 

SUSTAINABLE DIETS: UNDERSTANDING HOW TO SHIFT CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR - pg 15 - 18 

1 The EAT-Lancet Commission. Can we feed a future population of 10 billion people a healthy diet within planetary boundaries? Available: https://eatforum.org/ eat-lancet-commission/ [Accessed Feb 2020]
2 World Wildlife Fund, 2017. Eating for 2 degrees. New and updated Livewell Plates. Summary report, revised edition. Available: www.wwf.org.uk/what-we-do/livewell
3 Committee on Climate Change (2019). Net Zero. The UK’s contribution to stopping global warming. Available: www.theccc.org.uk/publication/netzero- the-uks-contribution-tostopping-global-warming/
4 Food, Farming and Countryside Commission (2019). Our Future in the Land. Available: www.thersa.org/ discover/publications-and-articles/reports/future-land
5 The Lancet (2019). Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Volume 393, Issue 10184, 11-17 May 2019, Pages 1958-1972. Available: www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-67361930041-8/fulltext#%20
6 Balmford A, Cole L, Sandbrook C, Fisher B (2017). The environmental footprints of conservationists, economists and medics compared. Biological conservation. Volume 214, pages 260-269
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8 Prochaska JO, Redding CA and Evers K (2002). TheTranstheoretical Model and Stages of Change. Health Behaviour and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice (3rd Ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc
9 Mintel, 2019. #VEGANUARY: UK overtakes Germany as World’s leader for vegan food launches. Available: www.mintel.com/press-centre/food-and-drink/veganuary-ukovertakes-germany-as-worlds-leader-for-vegan-food-launches

 

 

DENTAL DISEASE: THE IMPACT OF DIET - pg 19 - 23

1 Moynihan P and Petersen PE (2004). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of dental diseases. Public Health Nutrition, 7(1A), 201-226 [online] available from www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/1F48A25A0CCF758FACA41ACAF1151B50/S1368980004000217a.pdf/diet_nutrition_and_the_prevention_of_dental_diseases.pdf [2nd March 2020]
2 Public Health England (2017). Delivering better oral health: an evidence-based toolkit for prevention. London: Public Health England
3 HM Treasury (2018). Soft Drinks Industry Levy comes into effect. [online] available from www.gov.uk/government/news/soft-drinks-industry-levy-comes-into-effect [1st March 2020]
4 Food Standards Agency and Public Health England (2019). National Diet and Nutrition Survey Years 1 to 9 of the Rolling Programme (2008/2009 – 2016/2017): Time trend and income analyses. London: Public Health England
5 Ruiz-Ojeda FJ, Plaza-Diaz J, Sáez-Lara MJ and Gil A (2019). Effects of Sweeteners on the Gut Microbiota: A Review of Experimental Studies and Clinical Trials. Advances in Nutrition, 10 (1), S31-S48 [online] available from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363527/ [2nd March 2020]
6 Department of Health (1991). Dietary reference values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom London: HMSO
7 NICE (2020). Colecalciferol [online] available from www.bnf.nice.org.uk/drug/colecalciferol.html [1st March 2020]
8 Bolland M and Chiodini I (2018). Calcium supplementation in osteoporosis: useful or harmful?’ European Journal of Endocrinology, 178 (4), 13-25 [online] available from www.eje.bioscientifica.com/view/journals/eje/178/4/EJE-18-0113.xml [2nd March 2020]
9 Public Health England (2016). SACN vitamin D and health report. London: Public Health England
10 Russell H (2019). Veganism and plant-based nutrition. [online lecture] Plant-based diet and sustainability – for hospital and home, 30 March 2019. Leeds Beckett University available from https://gallery.mailchimp.com/24a2ce8ebb4491993c2ec2dbc/files/07458a28-675e-40e6-a2c6-d91b946b0e46/Heather_Russell_Veganism_plant_based_nutrition.pdf?mc_cid=f4ecb3182a&mc_eid=09f94fc4bc [1 March 2020]
11 Furuta M and Yamashita Y (2013). ‘Oral Health and Swallowing Problems’ Current physical medicine and rehabilitation reports, 1(4), 216-222 [online] available from https://doi.org/10.1007/s40141-013-0026-x [3rd March 2020]
12 McCance R and Widdowson E (2019). McCance and Widdowson's composition of foods integrated dataset. [online] available from www.gov.uk/government/publications/composition-of-foods-integrated-dataset-cofid [1st March 2020]
13 Nutricia (2016). Oral nutritional supplements compendium: 2016 issue. Wiltshire: Nutricia

COVID-19: SUPPORTING NUTRITIONAL HEALTH AND WELLBEING - pg 25 - 26

1 http://hub.careinspectorate.com/improvement/spotlight-on-improvement-for-adults-and-olderpeople/spotlight-on-food-and-fluid/adults-and-older-people/
2 www.careinspectorate.com Supporting people with eating, drinking and swallowing difficulties (Dysphagia). March 2020
3 www.nhshighland.scot.nhs.uk/Publications/Pages/publicationsmain.aspx
4 www.focusgames.com
5 www.bda.uk.com

NUTRITIONAL CHALLENGES FOR OLDER PEOPLE LIVING IN CARE HOMES - pg 27 - 30

References All accessed 24.02.20

1 www.bapen.org.uk/pdfs/nsw/care-homes/care-homes-uk.pdf
2 www.gov.uk/government/publications/care-homes-market-study-summary-of-final-report/care-homes-market-study-summary-of-final-report#contents
3 www.bapen.org.uk/resources-and-education/publications-and-reports/nsw-reports/nsw11
4 https://mouthcarematters.hee.nhs.uk/
5 www.cqc.org.uk/sites/default/files/20190624_smiling_matters_full_report.pdf
6 https://pathways.nice.org.uk/pathways/oral-health-for-adults-in-care-homes
7 www.cwt.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/EW-Old-Dementia-Practical-Resource.pdf
8 www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg32/chapter/1-Guidance#screening-for-malnutrition-and-the-risk-of-malnutrition-in-hospital-and-the-community
9 www.bapen.org.uk/pdfs/nsw/nsw-2011-report.pdf
10 www.malnutritionpathway.co.uk/library/managing_malnutrition.pdf
11 Eating and Drinking Well with Dementia – A Guide for Care Staff. Ageing and Dementia Research Centre, Bournemouth University 2018
12 www.uea.ac.uk/medicine/research/publichealth/health-services-and-primary-care/DrinKit
13 www.malnutritiontaskforce.org.uk/about-us
14 www.malnutritiontaskforce.org.uk/resources/malnutrition-resources
15 www.cqc.org.uk/guidance-providers/regulations-enforcement/regulation-14-meeting-nutritional-hydration-needs

NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE - pg 31 -34

1 The Renal Association (2017). The UK eCKD Guide: CKD stages [Online]. Available from: https://renal.org/information-resources/the-uk-eckd-guide/ckd-stages/ [Accessed 13 February 2020]
2 Kidney Care UK (2020). Facts and Stats [Online]. Available from www.kidneycareuk.org/news-and-campaigns/facts-and-stats/ [Accessed 29 January 2020]
3 NICE (2014). Clinical Guideline 182: Chronic kidney disease in adults: assessment and management [Online]. Available from www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg182/chapter/1-Recommendations [Accessed 3 February 2020]
4 Fraser S and Blakeman T (2016). Chronic kidney disease: identification and management in primary care. Pragmatic and Observational Research [Online]. 7, p 21-32. Available from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Accessed 15 February 2020]
5 Gandy J (2014). Manual of Dietetic Practice. 5th ed. WiIey-Blackwell
6 NHS Kidney Care (2012). Chronic Kidney Disease in England: the human and financial cost [Online]. Available from www.england.nhs.uk/improvement-hub/wp-content/uploads/sites/44/2017/11/Chronic-Kidney-Disease-in-England-The-Human-and-Financial-Cost.pdf [Accessed 6 February 2020]
7 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) (2012). Clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney International Supplements [Online]. 3, p 1-150. Available from https://kdigo.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/KDIGO_2012_CKD_GL.pdf [Accessed 3 February 2020]
8 Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (2008). Diagnosis and management of chronic kidney disease. A national clinical guideline. No 103 [Online]. Available from www.seqc.es/download/gpc/62/3729/1043258133/1073968/cms/sign-diagnosis-and-management-of-chronic-kidney-disease_guideline.pdf/ [Accessed 29 January 2020].
9 British Dietetic Association (2019) Salt: Food fact sheet [Online]. Available from www.bda.uk.com/resource/salt.html [Accessed 21 February 2020]
10 UK Renal Registry (2019). UK Renal Registry 21st Annual Report – data to 31/12/2017 [Online]. Available from www.renalreg.org/reports/data_to_end_2017/ [Accessed 18 February 2020]
11 Renal Association (2018). Managing hyperglycaemia in patients with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy-chronic kidney disease [Online]. Available from https://renal.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/ABCD%E2%80%93RA_Managing-glycaemia-guideline_2018Publication.pdf [Accessed 8 February 2020]
12 Abbass CK (2004). Overview: Obesity. What does it have to do with kidney disease? Journal of the American Society for Nephrology [Online]. 15 (11), p 2768-2772. Available from https://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/15/11/2768 [Accessed 13 February 2020].
13 UK Renal Association (2011). Clinical practice guidelines for the detection, monitoring and care of patients with chronic kidney disease [Online]. Available from https://renal.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/detection-monitoring-care-of-patients-with-ckd-5th-edition-1.pdf [Accessed 20 February 2020]
14 Lafranca JA, IJermans JN, Betjes MG and Dor FJ (2015). Body mass index and outcome in renal transplant recipients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Medicine [Online]. 13 (111). Available from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4427990/ [Accessed 21 February 2020]
15 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) (2017). Clinical Practice Guideline Update for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD). Kidney International Supplements [Online] 7, p 1-59. Available from https://kdigo.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/2017-KDIGO-CKD-MBD-GL-Update.pdf [Accessed 12 February 2020]
16 Renal Association (2019). Clinical Practice Guideline: Undernutrition in chronic kidney disease [Online]. Available from https://renal.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/FINAL-Nutrition-guideline-June-2019-RNG-endorsed.pdf [Accessed 29 January 2020]
17 National Kidney Foundation (2015). KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Haemodialysis Adequacy: 2015 Update. American Journal of Kidney Disease [Online] 66 (5), p 884-930. Available from www.ajkd.org/article/S0272-6386(15)01019-7/pdf [Accessed 10 February 2020]
18 Kalantar-Zadeh K, Regidor DL, Kovesdy CP, Van Wyck D, Bunnapradist S, Horwich TB and Fonarow GC (2009). Fluid retention is associated with cardiovascular mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients. Circulation [Online]. 119 (5), p 671-679. Available from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2773290/ [Accessed 20 February 2020]
19 Renal Association (2009). Haemodialysis [Online]. Available from https://renal.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/haemodialysis-5th-edition-1.pdf [Accessed 16 February 2020]
20 NICE (2013). Clinical Guideline 157: Chronic kidney disease (stage 4 or 5): management of hyperphosphataemia [Online]. Available from www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg157/chapter/Introduction [Accessed 21 February 2020]
21 Renacare (2017). Renavit data sheet [Online]. Available from www.renacare.com/downloads/2017-04_Renavit_EN.pdf [Accessed 1 March 2020]

 

LACTOSE INTOLERANCE - pg 35 - 37

1 www.britannica.com/science/phase-state-of-matter
2 https://patient.info/doctor/lactose-intolerance-pro#nav-6
3 Bhatnagar S and Aggarwal R (2007). Lactose intolerance. BMJ (Clinical research ed),334(7608), 1331-1332. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39252.524375.80
4 www.nhs.uk/conditions/lactose-intolerance/diagnosis/
5 Johnson AO, Semenya JG, Buchowski MS, Enwonwu CO, Scrimshaw NS. Adaptation of lactose maldigesters to continued milk intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58:879-81
6 www.nhs.uk/conditions/lactose-intolerance/treatment/
7 www.breastfeedingnetwork.org.uk/lactose-intolerance-and-breastfeeding/

SPECIALIST INFANT FORMULA: PRODUCT UPDATE - pg 39 - 41

1 www.oxfordshireccg.nhs.uk/professional-resources/documents/clinical-guidelines/paediatrics/Infant-Formula-Guidelines.pdf
2 NICE guideline [NG1]. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in children and young people: diagnosis and management. Published: January 2015. Last updated: October 2019. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng1/chapter/Introduction

 

NUTRITION SUPPORT MEASURES IN OESOPHAGEAL CANCER - pg 42 - 45

1 Thrumurthy SG et al (2019). Oesophageal cancer: risks, prevention, and diagnosis. BMJ; 366: l4373
2 Cancer Research UK. Accessed 4th April 2020 from: www.cancerresearchuk.org/health-professional/cancer-statistics/statistics-by-cancer-type/oesophageal-cancer#heading-Zero
3 Ribeiro U et al (1996). Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. British Journal of Surgery Society. 18 (9):1174-1185
4 Baus MF and Vaughan TL (2013). Epidemiology and risk factors for gastroesophageal junction tumours: understanding the rising incidence of this disease. Seminars in radiation oncology. 23 (1): 3-9
5 Ajani JA et al (2011). Esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancers. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. 9 (8): 830-887
6 Cox S et al (2016). Role of nutritional status and intervention in oesophageal cancer treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy: outcomes from SCOPE1. British Journal of Cancer. 115 (2):172-177
7 Knyrim K et al (1993). A controlled trial of an expansile metal stent for palliation esophageal obstruction due to inoperable cancer. 329: 1302-1307
8 Lee JLC et al (2016). Nutrition intervention approaches to reduce malnutrition in oncology patients: a systematic review. Supportive care in cancer. 24: 469-480
9 Odelli C et al (2005). Nutrition support improves patient outcomes, treatment tolerance and admission characteristics in oesophageal cancer. Clinical Oncology (R Coll Radiol). 17 (8): 639-645
10 Andreyev HJ et al (1998). Why do patients with weight loss have a worse outcome when undergoing chemotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancies? European journal of cancer. 34 (4): 503- 509
11 National Institute of Care and Excellence (2018). Oesophago-gastric cancer: assessment and management in adults. NG83. Accessed 30th March 2020 from: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng83/chapter/Recommendations#nutritional-support
12 Arends J et al (2006). ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition; non-surgical oncology. Clinical Nutrition. 25 (2): 245-259
13 Isenring et al (2013). Updated evidence-based practice guidelines for the nutritional management of patients receiving radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Accessed 4th April 2020 from: http://onlinelibary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1747-0080.12013.full
14 Baldwin C et al (2012). Oral nutrition interventions in malnourished patients with cancer; A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the national cancer institute. 104 (5); 371-385
15 De van der Schueren, MAE et al (2018). Systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence for oral nutrition intervention on nutritional and clinical outcomes during chemo (radio) therapy: current evidence and guidance for design of future trials. Annals of Oncology. 29 (5); 1141-1153
16 National Institute of Care and Excellence (2006). Nutrition support in adults. CG32. Accessed 2nd April from: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg32/chapter/1-Guidance
17 Arends J et al (2017). ESPEN guidelines on nutrition in cancer patients. Clinical Nutrition. 36(1): 11-48
18 National Nurses Nutrition Group (2016). Good Practice Guideline – Safe Insertion of Nasogastric (NG) Feeding Tubes in Adults and Ongoing care. Accessed 9th April 2020 from: www.nnng.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/NNNG-Nasogastric-tube-Insertion-and-Ongoing-Care-Practice-Final-Aprill-2016.pdf
19 Westaby D et al (2010). The provision of a percutaneously placed enteral tube feeding service. Gut. 59 (12): 1592-1605
20 Jenkinson et al (2007). Laparoscopic feeding jejunostomy in eosophagogastric cancer. Surgical endoscopy. 21 (2); 299-302
21 Heath El et al (2000). Phase 2 evaluation of pre-operative chemoradiation and post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy for squamous cell and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. Journal of clinical oncology.18 (4); 868-876
22 Odelli C et al (2005). Nutrition support improves patient outcomes, treatment tolerance and admission characteristics in oesophageal cancer. Clinical oncology. 17 (8); 639 -645
23 Grant DG et al (2009). Complications following gastrostomy tube insertion in patients with head and neck cancer: a prospective multi-institution study, systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Otolaryngol. 34: 103-112
24 Coletti D et al (2006). Metastasis to the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy site in the patient with head and neck cancer: a case report and review of the literature. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 64: 1149-1157
25 Margolis M et al (2003). Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy before multimodality therapy in patients with esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 76: 1694-1697

FLUIDS - pg 46 - 48

1 BDA (2017). Fluid -Food Fact Sheet
2 NHS inform (2020). Hydration www.nhsinform.scot/campaigns/hydration. Accessed 19-2-20
3 NHS Milton Keynes Clinical Commissioning Group (2019). Hydration and Urinary Tract Infections. www.miltonkeynesccg.nhs.uk/hydration-and-urinary-tract-infections Accessed 19-2-20
4 Wittenberg R et al (2015). Understanding emergency hospital admission of older people. LSE Research Online
5 Jeyapala S (2015). Improving fluid balance monitoring on the wards. BMJ Qual. Improv.Rep. Nov 17 (4)1
6 World Health Organisation (2019). Drinking Water. 14 June 2019. www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/drinking-water. Accessed 29-2-20
7 Drinking Water Inspectorate. (2017). What are the drinking water standards? http://dwi.defra.gov.uk/consumers/advice-leaflets/standards.pdf Accessed 1-3-20
8 Water UK (2013). Briefing paper on metaldehyde. 13 August 2013. www.water.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Metaldehyde-Water-UK-Policy-Briefing-Paper-2013.pdf Accessed 2-3-20

FACE TO FACE: URSULA MEETS DR EDWARDS SMITH - pg 52 - 53

1 Arens A (2020). Face to Face with Florence Nightingale. Network Health Digest April 2020, issue 152, p 46