References March issue 161

NUTRITIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

  • Barry M Popkin et al (2020). Individuals with obesity and COVID‐19: A global perspective on the epidemiology and biological relationships. Obesity Reviews Vol 21 Issue 11 November 2020
  • https://www.yourcovidrecovery.nhs.uk/your-wellbeing/eating-well/Eating Well | Your COVID Recovery
  • https://www.who.int/campaigns/connecting-the-world-to-combat-coronavirus/healthyathome/healthyathome---healthy-diet
  • https://www.bda.uk.com/resource/best-practice-guidance-enteral-feeding-in-prone-position.html

THE LOW-FODMAP DIET: CONSIDERATIONS AND ALTERNATIVES

  1. Lovell RM and Ford AC (2012). Global Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol H 10, 712-721.e4
  2. Gibson PR (2017). History of the low-FODMAP diet. J Gastroen Hepatol 32, 5-7
  3. Schumann D et al (2018). Low fermentable, oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyol diet in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition 45, 24-31
  4. Staudacher HM and Whelan K (2017). The low-FODMAP diet: recent advances in understanding its mechanisms and efficacy in IBS. Gut 66, 1517
  5. McKenzie YA et al (2016). British Dietetic Association systematic review and evidence‐based practice guidelines for the dietary management of irritable bowel syndrome in adults (2016 update). J Hum Nutr Diet 29, 549-575
  6. Irritable bowel syndrome in adults: diagnosis and management (CG61)
  7. Hill P, Muir JG and Gibson PR (2017). Controversies and Recent Developments of the Low-FODMAP Diet. Gastroenterology Hepatology 13, 36-45
  8. Staudacher HM, Ralph FSE, Irving PM, Whelan K and Lomer MCE (2020). Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Diet Diversity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome and the Impact of the Low-FODMAP Diet. J Acad Nutr Diet 120, 535-547
  9. Staudacher HM, Kurien M and Whelan K (2018). Nutritional implications of dietary interventions for managing gastrointestinal disorders. Curr Opin Gastroen 34, 105-111
  10. McDonald D et al (2018). American Gut: An Open Platform for Citizen Science Microbiome Research. Msystems 3, e00031-18
  11. Staudacher HM. et al (2012). Fermentable Carbohydrate Restriction Reduces Luminal Bifidobacteria and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. J Nutrition 142, 1510-1518
  12. Staudacher HM et al (2017). A Diet Low in FODMAPs Reduces Symptoms in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and a Probiotic Restores Bifidobacterium Species: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Gastroenterology 153, 936-947
  13. Larsen T et al (2017). Does the low-FODMAP diet improve symptoms of radiation-induced enteropathy? A pilot study. Scand J Gastroentero 53, 1-8
  14. Foster JA, Rinaman L and Cryan JF (2017). Stress & the gut–brain axis: Regulation by the microbiome. Neurobiology Stress 7, 124-136
  15. Halmos EP (2017). When the low-FODMAP diet does not work. J Gastroen Hepatol 32, 69-72
  16. Satherley R, Howard R and Higgs S (2015). Disordered eating practices in gastrointestinal disorders. Appetite 84, 240-250
  17. Singh J and Whelan K (2011). Limited availability and higher cost of gluten‐free foods. J Hum Nutr Diet 24, 479-486
  18. Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust & King’s College London. Suitable products for the low-FODMAP diet, 6th Edition. (2020)
  19. Ford AC, Harris LA, Lacy BE, Quigley EMM and Moayyedi P (2018). Systematic review with meta‐analysis: the efficacy of prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics in irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharm Therap 48, 1044-1060
  20. McKenzie YA, Thompson J, Gulia P, Lomer MCE (2016). IBS Dietetic Guideline Review Group on behalf of Gastroenterology Specialist Group of the British Dietetic Association; systematic review of systematic reviews and evidence‐based practice guidelines for the use of probiotics in the management of irritable bowel syndrome in adults (2016 update). J Hum Nutr Diet 29, 576592
  21. Su GL et al (2020). AGA Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Role of Probiotics in the Management of Gastrointestinal Disorders. Gastroenterology 159, 697-705
  22. Black CJ et al (2020). Efficacy of psychological therapies for irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and network meta-analysis. Gut 69, 1441-1451
  23. Peters SL. et al (2016). Randomised clinical trial: the efficacy of gut‐directed hypnotherapy is similar to that of the low-FODMAP diet for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharm Therap 44, 447-459
  24. Schumann D, Langhorst J, Dobos G and Cramer H (2018). Randomised clinical trial: yoga vs a low-FODMAP diet in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharm Therap 47, 203-211
  25. O’Keeffe M and Lomer MC (2017). Who should deliver the low-FODMAP diet and what educational methods are optimal: a review. J Gastroen Hepatol 32, 23-26

HISTAMINE INTOLERANCE AND LONG COVID

  1. Laura Maintz and Natalija Novak (2007). Histamine and histamine intolerance. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007, May, volume 85, issue 5 p 1185-1196
  2. Pinzer TC et al (2018). Circadian profiling reveals higher histamine plasma levels and lower diamine oxidase serum activities in 24% of patients with suspected histamine intolerance compared to food allergy and controls. Allergy, vol 2018, 73,4: 949-957
  3. SIGN & RCGP. COVID-19 guideline scope: management of the long-term effects of COVID-19. October 2020. Available from: final-scope (nice.org.uk)
  4. Afrin LB, Weinstock LB, Molderings GJ (2020). COVID-19 hyperinflammation and post-COVID-19 illness may be rooted in mast cell activation syndrome. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Nov;100: 327-332
  5. Kritas SK, Ronconi G, Caraffa A, Gallenga CE, Ross R, Conti P (2020). Mast cells contribute to coronavirus-induced inflammation: new anti-inflammatory strategy. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2020 January-February; 34(1): 9-14
  6. Dr Tina Peers. Histamine Intolerance (HIT), Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS) and long-COVID (LC) 2020, November Available from: DrTinaPeers-LongCovid-17Dec2020.pdf (squarespace.com)
  7. Reese I, Ballmer-Weber B, Beyer K et al (2017). German guideline for the management of adverse reactions to ingested histamine. Allergo J Int, 2017, 26, 72-79 Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40629-017-0011-5
  8. Skypala IJ, Williams M, Reeves L, Meyer R, Venter C (2015). Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence. Clin Transl Allergy. 2015 Oct 13;5:34
  9. Vlieg-Boerstra BJ, van der Heide S, Oude Elberink JN, Kluin-Nelemans JC, Dubois AE (2005). Mastocytosis and adverse reactions to biogenic amines and histamine-releasing foods: what is the evidence? Neth J Med. 2005 Jul-Aug; 63(7): 244-9

MALNUTRITION AND THE GROWING IMPACT OF COVID-19

  1. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs24/chapter/Introduction-and-overview
  2. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malnutrition
  3. https://www.bapen.org.uk/malnutrition-undernutrition/introduction-to-malnutrition?showall=&start=4
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6521101/pdf/nutrients-11-00808.pdf
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4951875/
  6. https://www.bapen.org.uk/pdfs/economic-report-full.pdf
  7. https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/10/2956/htm
  8. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41430-020-0634-3
  9. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmenvaud/1491/149105.htm
  10. https://enuf.org.uk/resources/vulnerability-food-insecurity-covid-19-lockdown-–-preliminary-report
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310590/

ADULT TUBE FEEDING THEN, NOW AND IN THE FUTURE

  1. Harkness L. The history of enteral nutrition therapy: from raw eggs and nasal tubes to purified amino acids and early postoperative jejunal delivery. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002; 102:399-404
  2. Hirsch WH and Piontek CJ (1998). Design and Production of Enteral Feeding Tubes. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America, 8(3), 611-621. doi:10.1016/s1052-5157(18)30252-6
  3. Chernoff R (2006). An Overview of Tube Feeding: From Ancient Times to the Future. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 21(4), 408 doi:10.1177/0115426506021004408
  4. https://www.nhs.uk/common-health-questions/nhs-services-and-treatments/does-colonic-irrigation-have-any-health-benefits-and-is-it-available-on-the-nhs/
  5. Cresci G and Mellinger J (2006). The History of Nonsurgical Enteral Tube Feeding Access. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 21(5), 522-528. doi:10.1177/0115426506021005522
  6. Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW, Gramlich L, Dodek P. Canadian Critical Care Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2003; 27:355-373
  7. Gabriel S, Ackermann R. Placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes using external magnetic guidance. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2004; 28:119-122
  8. Campbell S. An anthology of advances in enteral tube feeding formulations. Nutr Clin Pract. 2006; 21:411-415
  9. Moog, Inc, Vygon SA, Nestle, Cook Medical, Danone Nutricia, Fresenius Kabi AG, Becton, Dickinson and Company (BD), B. Braun Melsungen AG, Halyard Health, Inc., Medtronic plc, Boston Scientific Corporation, CONMED Corporation, and Abbott Laboratories are some of the notable players profiled in the global enteral feeding devices market. https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/reports/enteral-feeding-devices-market-7828
  10. Wong A, Banks M and Bauer J (2018). A Survey of Home Enteral Nutrition Practices and Reimbursement in the Asia Pacific Region. Nutrients, 10(2), 214. doi:10.3390/nu10020214

NASOGASTRIC FEEDING AND THE EATING DISORDERS PATIENT

  1. Martin CM, Doig GS, Heyland KK, Morrison T, Sibbald WJ. Southwestern Ontario Critical Care Research Network. Multicenter, cluster-randomised clinical trial of algorithms for critical care enteral and parenteral therapy. 2004; 170: 197-204
  2. Trueman CN. Force-feeding of Suffragettes. The History Learning Site, 17 Mar 2015. 23 Dec 2020,co.uk
  3. Wong AH, Ray JM, Rosenberg A et al (2020). Experiences of individuals who were physically restrained in the emergency department. JAMA Network Open, 3(1): e1919381. Doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.19381
  4. Bernadette Gregory. Hunger Striking Prisoners: The Doctors’ Dilemma’, British Medical Journal, 331 (13 October 2005), p 866
  5. June Purvis. Prison Experience of the Suffragettes in Edwardian Britain. Women’s History Review, 4 (1995), pp. 103-33
  6. Agnes F Savill, Charles Mansell-Moullin and Victor Horsley. Preliminary Report on the Forcible Feeding of Suffrage Prisoners. Lancet, 180 (24 August 1912), p 549-51; British Medical Journal , ii (31 August 1912), p 505-8
  7. Kuug Kudsk KA, Croce MA, Fabian TC et al. Enteral versus parenteral feeding: effects on septic morbidity after blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma. Ann Surg. 1992; 215: 503-511
  8. https://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCOP/2020/40.html

TYPE 1 DIABETES AND INTUITIVE EATING

  1. Diabetes UK (2020). About Type 1 Diabetes [online]. Available at: https://www.diabetes.org.uk/type-1-diabetes [Accessed June 12th 2020]
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  3. Southend University Hospital (2011). HbA1c Conversion Table [online]. Available at: http://www.southend.nhs.uk/media/44653/hba1c_conversion_table.pdf [Accessed May 26th 2020]
  4. Foster NC, Beck RW, Miller KM, Clements MA, Rickels MR, DiMeglio LA, Maahs DM, Tamborlane WV, Bergenstal R, Smith E, Olson BA and Garg SK (2019). State of Type 1 Diabetes Management and Outcomes from the T1D Exchange in 2016-2018. Diabetes Technology &Therapeutics 21(2): p 66-72
  5. Brancato D, Fleres M, Aiello V, Saura G, Scorsone A, Ferrara L, Provenzano F, Di Noto A, Spano L and Provenzano V (2014). The effectiveness and durability of an early insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 16(11): p 735-741
  6. Pickup J and Keen H (2002). Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion at 25 Years. Diabetes Care 25(3): p 593-598
  7. Bolla AM, Caretto A, Laurenzi A, Scavini M, Piemonti L (2019). Low-Carb and Ketogenic Diets in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients 11(5): p 962
  8. Deiana V, Diana E, Pinna F, Atzeni MG et al (2016). Clinical features in insulin-treated diabetes with comorbid diabulimia, disordered eating behaviours and eating disorders. European Psychiatry 33: p 81
  9. Hanlan ME, Griffith J, Patel N, Jaser SS (2013). Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating in Type 1 Diabetes: Prevalence, Screening and Treatment Options. Current Diabetes Reports 13: p 909-916
  10. Merwin R, Moskovich AA, Dmitrieva NO, Pieper CF, Honeycutt LK, Zucker NL, Surwit RS, Buhi L (2014). Disinhibited eating and weight-related insulin mismanagement among individuals with Type 1 diabetes. Appetite 81: p 123-130
  11. Staite E, Zaremba N, Macdonald P, Allan J, Treasure J, Ismail K, Stadler M (2018). ‘Diabulimia’ through the lens of social media: a qualitative review and analysis of online blogs by people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and eating disorders. Diabetic Medicine 35(10): p 1329-1336
  12. Winston AP (2020). Eating Disorders and Diabetes. Current Diabetes Reports 20: p 32
  13. Young-Hyman DL and Davis CL (2010). Disordered Eating Behaviour in Individuals with Diabetes. Diabetes Care 33(3): p 683-689
  14. Thomas L (2019). Just Eat It. London: Bluebird
  15. BEAT Eating Disorders (2017). Statistics for Journalists [online]. Available at: https://www.beateatingdisorders.org.uk/media-centre/eating-disorder-statistics [Accessed November 10th 2020]
  16. Wheeler BJ, Lawrence J, Chae M, Paterson H, Gray AR, Healey D, Reith DM, Taylor BJ (2016). Intuitive eating is associated with glycaemic control in adolescents with Type I diabetes mellitus. Appetite 96: p 160-165

PAEDIATRIC ALLERGIES AND WEANING

  1. Perkin et al. Randomised trial of introduction of allergenic foods in breastfed infants. NEJM 2016; 374: 1733-1743
  2. Du Toit et al. Randomised Trial of Peanut Consumption in Infants at Risk for Peanut Allergy. NEJM 2015; 372: 803-813
  3. Turner et al. Increase in anaphylaxis-related hospitalisations but no increase in fatalities: an analysis of United Kingdom national anaphylaxis data, 1992 to 2012. JACI 2015; 135(5); 956-963
  4. Perkin M et al. Enquiring about tolerance (EAT) study: Feasibility of an early allergenic food introduction regime. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 May; 137(5): 1477-1486.e8
  5. Food Standards Agency (2021). Allergen labelling for food manufacturers [online]. Available at: <https://www.food.gov.uk/business-guidance/allergen-labelling-for-food-manufacturers> [Accessed 1 February 2021]
  6. Public Health England (2019). Official Statistics. Breastfeeding prevalence at 6-8 weeks after birth (Experimental Statistics) 2018/19 Annual Data Statistical Commentary (November 2019). Accessed on 3rd June 2020 at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/845706/2018_2019_Annual_Breastfeeding_Statistical_Commentary.pdf
  7. Comberiati P et al. Prevention of Food Allergy: The Significance of Early Introduction Medicina (Kaunas). 2019 Jul; 55(7): 323.Published online 2019 June 30. doi:3390/medicina55070323
  8. Affarelli C, Di Mauro D, Mastrorilli C, Bottau P, Cipriani F and Ricci G (2018). Solid Food Introduction and the Development of Food Allergies. Nutrients, 10(11), p 1790
  9. BSACI’s Paediatric Allergy Group (PAG), Food Allergy Specialist Group (FASG). Early Feeding Guidance for HCP’s. May 2018. Accessed online. Available at: https://www.bsaci.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/pdf_Early-feeding-guidance-for-HCPs-2.pdf
  10. Abrams EM, Hildebrand K, Blair B, Chan ES (2019). Timing of introduction of allergenic solids for infants at high risk. Child Health. 2019;24:56-57. doi: 10.1093/pch/pxy195
  11. Ferraro et al (2019). Timing of Food Introduction and the Risk of Food Allergy. Nutrients 2019 May; 11(5): 1131. Published online 2019 May 21. Accessed on 1st Febuary 2021 at # https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6567868/

NUTRITION AND HYDRATION IN THE ELDERLY

  1. Salazar N, Valdés-Varela L, González S, Gueimonde M and de los Reyes-Gavilán CG (2017). Nutrition and the gut microbiome in the elderly. Gut Microbes, 8(2), 82-97
  2. Roberts C, Steer T, Maplethorpe N, Cox L, Meadows S, Nicholson S, Page P, Swan G (2018). NDNS results from years 7 and 8 (combined): data tables. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/ndns-results-from-years-7- and-8-combined
  3. British Dietetics Association (2020). Guide to good nutrition and hydration in older age. Available at: https://www.bda.uk.com/uploads/assets/8b9cfa50-e442-4cd1-b588e8dcb01a5e85/64a56aed-07b0-4678-96816e77eafd2751/guidetogoodnutritioninolderage.pdf
  4. Chen X, Maguire B, Brodaty H and O'Leary F (2019). Dietary Patterns and Cognitive Health in Older Adults: A Systematic Review. Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD, 67(2), 583-619. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-180468
  5. World Health Organisation (2020). Decade of healthy ageing: baseline report. Available at: https://www.who.int/health-topics/ageing#tab=tab_1
  6. Clegg ME and Williams EA (2018). Optimising nutrition in older people. Maturitas, 112, 34-38
  7. Govindaraju T, Sahle BW, McCaffrey TA, McNeil JJ and Owen AJ (2018). Dietary patterns and quality of life in older adults: A systematic review. Nutrients, 10(8), 971
  8. Abd Aziz N, Teng N, Abdul Hamid MR and Ismail NH (2017). Assessing the nutritional status of hospitalised elderly. Clinical interventions in aging, 12, 1615-1625. https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S140859
  9. Klimova B, Novotny M and Valis M (2020). The Impact of Nutrition and Intestinal Microbiome on Elderly Depression: A Systematic Review. Nutrients, 12(3), 710
  10. Chun-De Liao, Jau-Yih Tsauo, Yen-Tzu Wu, Chin-Pao Cheng, Hui-Chuen Chen, Yi-Ching Huang, Hung-Chou Chen, Tsan-Hon Liou. Effects of protein supplementation combined with resistance exercise on body composition and physical function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 106, Issue 4, October 2017, Pages 1078-1091, https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.143594
  11. Mentes JC, DeVost MA and Nandy K (2019). Salivary Osmolality, Function and Hydration Habits in Community-Dwelling Older Adults. SAGE Open Nursing, 5, 2377960819826253
  12. Bloom I, Shand C, Cooper C, Robinson S and Baird J (2018). Diet quality and sarcopenia in older adults: a systematic review. Nutrients, 10(3), 308.
  13. British Nutrition Foundation (2016). Older adults. Available at: https://www.nutrition.org.uk/nutritionscience/life/older-adults.html
  14. van Dronkelaar C, van Velzen A, Abdelrazek M, van der Steen A., Weijs PJ and Tieland M (2018). Minerals and sarcopenia; the role of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, and zinc on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in older adults: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 19(1), 6-11
  15. Nádia Cristina Fávaro-Moreira, Stefanie Krausch-Hofmann, Christophe Matthys, Carine Vereecken, Erika Vanhauwaert, Anja Declercq, Geertruida Elsiena Bekkering, Joke Duyck, Risk Factors for Malnutrition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review of the Literature Based on Longitudinal Data. Advances in Nutrition, Volume 7, Issue 3, May 2016, p 507-522, https://doi.org/10.3945/an.115.011254
  16. British Nutrition Foundation (nd). Dehydration in the elderly. Available at: https://www.nutrition.org.uk/nutritionscience/life/dehydrationelderly.html
  17. Bunn D, Jimoh F, Wilsher SH and Hooper L (2015). Increasing fluid intake and reducing dehydration risk in older people living in long-term care: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 16(2), 101-113
  18. Fernández-Barrés S, García-Barco M, Basora J, Martínez T, Pedret R and Arija V (2017). The efficacy of a nutrition education intervention to prevent risk of malnutrition for dependent elderly patients receiving Home Care: A randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 70, 131-141
  19. Zhang Z, Pereira SL, Luo M and Matheson EM (2017). Evaluation of Blood Biomarkers Associated with Risk of Malnutrition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients, 9(8), 829. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080829
  20. Jeruszka-Bielak M, Kollajtis-Dolowy A, Santoro A, Ostan R, Berendsen AAM, Jennings A, Meunier N, Marseglia A, Caumon E, Gillings R, de Groot LCPGM, Franceschi C, Hieke S and Pietruszka B (2018). Are Nutrition-Related Knowledge and Attitudes Reflected in Lifestyle and Health Among Elderly People? A Study Across Five European Countries. Front. Physiol. 9:994. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00994
  21. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2021). SACN statement on nutrition and older adults living in the community. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/953911/SACN_Nutrition_and_older_adults.pdf

CHOLESTEROL: THE GOOD, THE BAD… OR THE ‘LOUSY’

  1. Kumari A (2018). Sweet Biochemistry. Chapter 7 – Cholesterol Synthesis. Available at https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814453-4.00007-8
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  3. HEART UK – The Cholesterol Charity (n.d.). What is cholesterol? [online] Available at: https://www.heartuk.org.uk/cholesterol/what-is-cholesterol#:~:text=Cholesterol%20is%20a%20type%20of
  4. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2019). Saturated fats and health: SACN report. [online] Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/saturated-fats-and-health-sacn-report
  5. NHS Choices (2019). Cholesterol levels. [online] Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/high-cholesterol/cholesterol-levels/
  6. HEART UK – The Cholesterol Charity (n.d.). Foods that are high in cholesterol. [online] Available at: https://www.heartuk.org.uk/low-cholesterol-foods/foods-that-contain-cholesterol.
  7. US Department of Agriculture (2019). FoodData Central. [online] Available at: https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/
  8. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2015). Carbohydrates and health. [online] Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/sacn-carbohydrates-and-health-report
  9. NHS Choices (2020). Lower your cholesterol. [online] Available at https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/healthy-body/lower-your-cholesterol/
  10. NICE (2014). Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction, including lipid modification. Guidance. [online] Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg181/chapter/1-Recommendations
  11. British Heart Foundation (2020). Cholesterol lowering alternatives. [online] Available at: https://www.bhf.org.uk/informationsupport/heart-matters-magazine/medical/cholesterol-lowering-alternatives
  12. HEART UK – The Cholesterol Charity (n.d.). Exercise. [online] Available at: https://www.heartuk.org.uk/healthy-living/exercise
  13. HEART UK –The Cholesterol Charity (2019). Triglycerides. [online] Available at: https://www.heartuk.org.uk/cholesterol/triglycerides
  14. HEART UK – The Cholesterol Charity (2019a). Statins – High Cholesterol Medication [online] Available at: https://www.heartuk.org.uk/getting-treatment/statins

RESOURCES AND ADVICE FOR STUDENTS

  1. Roediger and Butler (2011). Trends Cogn Sci. Jan;15(1): 20-7. Doi:10.1016/j.tics.2010.09.003
  2. Kang, McDermott and Roediger (2007). Test Format and Corrective Feedback Modify the Effect of Testing on Long-Term Retention. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19, 528-558
  3. Carpenter, Pashler and Vul (2008). The effects of tests on learning and forgetting. Memory and Cognition, 36, 438-448
  4. Butler (2010). Repeated testing produces superior transfer of learning relative to repeated studying. Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition, 36 (5): 1118-33
  5. Ali Abdaal. Go to: Aliabdaal.com
  6. Save The Student Money Survey; National Student Money Survey at savethestudent.org