Focus on... Paediatric May 2017
Focus on… Paediatric Supplement
Page 3 - INFANT FORMULA CONTAINING FULL CREAM MILK FATS: LATEST INNOVATIONS
1. Binns C et al. (2016) The Long-Term Public Health Benefits of Breastfeeding. Asia Pac J Public Health 28(1):7-14.
2. [WHO] (World Health Organisation) (2017) Breastfeeding. Available at: http://www.who.int/topics/breastfeeding/en/ (accessed April 2017).
3. Dimitraki M et al. (2016) Evaluation of the effect of natural and emotional stress of labour on lactation and breast-feeding. Arch Gynecol Obstet 293(2):317-28.
4. Hobbs AJ et al. (2016) The impact of caesarean section on breastfeeding initiation, duration and difficulties in the first four months postpartum. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 16:90.
5. Brookes A & Bowley DM (2014) Tongue tie: the evidence for frenotomy. Early Hum Dev 90(11):765-8.
6. [WBFTi] (World Breastfeeding Trends Initiative) UK Report 2016. Lactation Consultants of Great Britain. Available at: https://ukbreastfeedingtrends.files.wordpress.com/2016/12/wbti-uk-report-2016-part-1-11-12-16.pdf (accessed April 2017)
7. Martin CR et al. (2016) Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula. Nutrients 8(5). pii: E279.
8. Zou L et al. (2016) Infant Formula Fat Analogs and Human Milk Fat: New Focus on Infant Developmental Needs. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 7:139-65.
9. Rossen LM et al. (2016) Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 55(3):278-85.
10. Mansson HL (2008) Fatty acids in bovine milk fat. Food Nutr Res 52: 10.
11. Cichosz G & Czeczot H (2015) Milk fat - the only existing for any reason. Pol Merkur Lekarski 38(225):174-9.
12. Innis SM (2016) Palmitic Acid in Early Human Development. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 56(12):1952-9.
13. Yu ZB et al. (2009) Effects of infant formula containing palm oil on the nutrient absorption and defecation in infants: a meta-analysis. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 47(12):904-10.
14. Derbyshire EJ (2017) Palm Oil: Feeding the Next Generation on Unethical Oils? NHD Mag Issue 120: 34-36.
15. Matte JJ et al. (2012) Bioavailability of vitamin B₁₂ in cows' milk. Br J Nutr 107(1):61-6.
16. Artegoitia VM et al. (2014) Choline and choline metabolite patterns and associations in blood and milk during lactation in dairy cows. PLoS One 9(8):e103412.
17. FSN [First Steps Nutrition] (2017) Infant Milks in the UK: A Practical Guide for Health Professionals. First Steps Nutrition Trust. pp8.
18. [NHS] National Health Service (2015) Drinks and cups for babies and toddlers. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/Pages/drinks-and-cups-children.aspx (accessed April 2017).
19. Schoemaker AA et al. (2015) Incidence and natural history of challenge-proven cow's milk allergy in European children--EuroPrevall birth cohort. Allergy 70(8):963-72.
20. Havlicekova Z et al. (2016) Beta-palmitate - a natural component of human milk in supplemental milk formulas. Nutr J15:28.
21. Lindquist S & Hernell O. (2010) Lipid digestion and absorption in early life: an update. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13:314–20.
22. Carnielli VP et al. (1996) Structural position and amount of palmitic acid in infant formulas: effects on fat, fatty acid, and mineral balance. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 23(5):553-60.
23. Straarup EM et al. (2006) The stereospecific triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of human milk and infant formulas. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 42:293–9.
24. Delplanque B & Baudry C (2015) Dairy fat in infant formula. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 117: 1487–1488
25. Delplanque B et al. (2015) Lipid quality in infant nutrition: Current knowledge and future opportunities. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 61: 8–17.
26. Baldi A & Pinotti L (2008) Lipophilic microconstituents of milk. Adv Exp Med Biol. 606:109-25.
27. Kim JH et al. (2016) Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Potential Health Benefits as a Functional Food Ingredient. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 7:221-44.
28. Jackson KH & Harris WS (2016) Should there be a target level of docosahexaenoic acid in breast milk? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 19(2):92-6.
29. Koletzko B et al. (2008) The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations. J Perinat Med 36(1):5-14.
30. Brenna JT (2016) Arachidonic acid needed in infant formula when docosahexaenoic acid is present. Nutr Rev 74(5):329-36.
31. de Souza Santos da Costa R et al. (2016) trans Fatty Acids in Colostrum, Mature Milk and Diet of Lactating Adolescents. Lipids 51(12):1363-1373.
32. Sommerfeld M (1983) Trans unsaturated fatty acids in natural products and processed foods. Prog Lipid Res 22(3):221-33.
33. Koletzko B (2016) Human Milk Lipids. Ann Nutr Metab 69 Suppl 2:28-40.
34. Ziegler EE et al. (2015) Adequacy of Infant Formula With Protein Content of 1.6 g/100 kcal for Infants Between 3 and 12 Months. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 61(5):596-603.
35. Quinn EA (2014) Too much of a good thing: evolutionary perspectives on infant formula fortification in the United States and its effects on infant health. Am J Hum Biol 26(1):10-7.
36. Bakoyiannis I et al. (2015) An explanation of the pathophysiology of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in iron deficiency. Rev Neurosci 26(4):479-88.
37. Koletzko B et al. (2005) Global standard for the composition of infant formula: recommendations of an ESPGHAN coordinated international expert group. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 41(5):584-99.
38. [EFSA] European Food Safety Authority (2016) Iron and contribution to the normal function of the immune system: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). EFSA Journal 14(7):4548.
39. [EFSA] European Food Safety Authority (2014a) Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061 EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) EFSA Journal 2(1):3515.
40. Commission Directive (2006) 2006/141/EC of 22 December 2006 on infant formulae and follow-on formulae and amending Directive 1999/21/EC. Official Journal of the European Union. L 401/1-33.
41. Weir RR et al. (2016) Environmental and genetic factors influence the vitamin D content of cows' milk. Proc Nutr Soc [Epub ahead of print]
42. [EFSA] European Food Safety Authority (2014b) Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and contribution to normal bone and tooth development pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 12(2):3579
43. [SACN] (Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition) (2016) Vitamin D and Health. pp140.
44. Verkaik-Kloosterman J et al. (2017) Vitamin D intake of Dutch infants from the combination of (fortified) foods, infant formula, and dietary supplements. Eur J Nutr 56(2):581-590.
45. CoFID (Composition of Foods Integrated Dataset) (2015) McCance and Widdowson's composition of foods integrated dataset. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/composition-of-foods-integrated-dataset-cofid (accessed April 2017).
46. Verardo V et al. (2017) Recent Advances in Phospholipids from Colostrum, Milk and Dairy By-Products. Int J Mol Sci 18(1). pii: E173.
47. Bourlieu C et al. (2015) Infant formula interface and fat source impact on neonatal digestion and gut microbiota. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 117 (10): 1500-12.
48. Bainbridge ML et al. (2017) Milk from cows grazing on cool-season pastures provides an enhanced profile of bioactive fatty acids compared to those grazed on a monoculture of pearl millet. Food Chem 217:750-5.
49. O'Callaghan TF et al. (2016) Effect of pasture versus indoor feeding systems on raw milk composition and quality over an entire lactation. J Dairy Sci 99(12):9424-9440. 5.
50. Farming Online (2016) Milk price war decimating UK dairy farms. Available at: http://www.farming.co.uk/news/article/12102 (accessed April 2017).
51. Galtry JA (2013) Improving the New Zealand dairy industry’s contribution to local and global wellbeing: the case of infant formula exports. The New Zealand Medical Journal 126: 1386.
Page 9 - FOLLOW-ON FORMULA
1 DH and FSA (2011). Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children, 2011. www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/139572/DNSIYC_UK_report_ALL_chapters_DH_V10.0.pdf
2 NHS Choices (2016). Types of Formula Milk. www.nhs.uk/Conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/Pages/types-of-infant-formula.aspx
3 DH (2013). DH Guidance Notes on the Infant Formula and Follow-on Formula Regulations 2007. www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/204314/Infant_formula_guidance_2013_-_final_6_March.pdf
4 WHO (2013). Information concerning the use and marketing of follow-up formula. www.who.int/nutrition/topics/WHO_brief_fufandcode_post_17July.pdf
5 BDA (2015). Complementary Feeding: Introduction of Solid Food to an Infants Diet. www.bda.uk.com/publications/professional/complementary_feeding_weaning
6 ESPGHAN (2017). Complementary Feeding: A Position Paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28027215
7 SACN (2016). 28th Meeting of the Subgroup on Maternal and Child Nutrition. https://app.box.com/s/c1vfosry4crdtnukvzyrpv70pfucagb9
8 SACN (2008). Infant Feeding Survey 2005: A commentary on infant feeding practices in the UK
9 Thomas and Bishop (2007). The Manual of Dietetic Practice 4th Edition
10 NHMRC (1995). Dietary Guidelines for Children & Adolescents. www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/n1.pdf
11 Crawley and Westland (2016). Infant Milk Composition. www.firststepsnutrition.org/pdfs/Infant_milk_composition_February2016.pdf
12 Finglas et al (2015). McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, Seventh summary edition
13 DH (1991). DRVs for Food and Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom
14 Great Ormond Street (2014). Nutritional Requirements
15 World Health Assembly Resolution 63.23, 21 May 2010
16 Nina et al (2010). It’s all formula to me: women’s understandings of toddler milk ads, Breastfeeding Review
17 Sobel et al (2011). Is unimpeded marketing for breast milk substitutes responsible for the decline in breastfeeding in the Philippines? An exploratory survey and focus group analysis
18 Health and Social Care Information Centre (2012). Infant Feeding Survey 2010: Summary. http://content.digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PUB08694/ifs-uk-2010-sum.pdf
19 Food, England (2017). The Infant Formula and Follow-on Formula (England) Regulations 2007. www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2007/3521/regulation/1/made
Page 12 - COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING: THE EVIDENCE-BASED GUIDE TO WHAT, WHEN AND HOW
1 World Health Organisation (WHO) (2002). Complementary Feeding. Report of the Global Consultation. Geneva. 10-13 December 2001. Summary of Guiding Principles. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42739/1/924154614X.pdf?ua=1 Accessed March 10, 2017
3 Du Toit, G et al (2015). Randomised Trial of Peanut Consumption in Infants at Risk for Peanut Allergy. N Engl J Med 2015; 372:803-813 February 26, 2015 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1414850
4 Perkin MR et al (2016). Randomised Trial of Introduction of Allergenic Foods in Breastfed Infants. N Engl J Med 2016; 374:1733-1743 May 5, 2016 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1514210
5 Tran MM et al (2016) The Effects of Infant Feeding Practices on Food Sensitisation in a Canadian Birth Cohort. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 193; 2016: A6694 www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2016.193.1_MeetingAbstracts.A6694
6 Fewtrell M et al. Complementary Feeding: A Position Paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition. JPGN, Vol 64, Number 1, January 2017
7 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2016). Vitamin D and Health. www.gov.uk/government/groups/scientific-advisory-committee-on-nutrition
8 McAndrew F et al (2012). Infant Feeding Survey 2010. London, ONS: The Information Centre for Health and Social Care.
9 Daniels L et al. Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) study: a randomised control trial of a baby-led approach to complementary feeding. http://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12887-015-0491-8
10 Table from: www.bda.uk.com/foodfacts/WeaningYourChild.pdf
11 Thomas B and Bishop J (2007). Manual of Dietetic Practice. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford
12 Townsend E, Pitchford NJ. Baby knows best? The impact of weaning style on food preferences and body mass index in early childhood in a case-controlled sample. BMJ Open 2012; 2: e000298. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000298
Page 15 - THE NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF INFANT AND TODDLER SNACK PRODUCTS: AN ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTS SOLD IN THE UK
1 De Cosmi, VS et al (2017). Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices. Nutrients 9(2)
2 Solomons NW and Vossenaar M (2013). Nutrient density in complementary feeding of infants and toddlers. Eur J Clin Nutr 67(5): 501-506
3 Cogswell ME et al (2015). Sodium and sugar in complementary infant and toddler foods sold in the United States. Pediatrics 135(3): 416-23
4 Louis-Sylvestre JA et al (2003). Highlighting the positive impact of increasing feeding frequency on metabolism and weight management. Forum Nutr 56: 126-128
5 Cowbrough K (2010). Feeding the toddler: 12 months to 3 years - challenges and opportunities. J Fam Health Care 20(2): 49-52
6 Food Business News (2017) Available at: www.foodbusinessnews.net/articles/news_home/Consumer_Trends/2016/09/Snackification_trend_spurs_glo.aspx?ID=%7B5F11374C-4BC7-4DAD-B74B-213A5F31F9E6%7D&cck=1
7 Mennella JA (2014). Ontogeny of taste preferences: basic biology and implications for health. Am J Clin Nutr 99(3): 704S-711S
8 Derbyshire (EJ (2017). Palm Oil: Feeding the Next Generation on Unethical Oils? NHD Mag 120: 34-36
Page 18 – Nutrition in Schools
1 HM government (2016). Childhood Obesity - A Plan for Action (available at: www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/546588/Childhood_obesity_2016__2__acc.pdf)
2 The Education Act 1996 (available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1996/56/contents)
3 Department for Education (2016). School Food in England. www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/551813/School_food_in_England.pdf
4 Rural Payments Agency, Calculate your school milk subsidy, (updated 2017, available at: www.gov.uk/guidance/calculate-your-school-milk-subsidy)
5 School Food Standards (2015). www.schoolfoodplan.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/School-Food-Standards-Guidance-FINAL-V3.pdf
6 Health and Social Care Information Centre (2015). Health Survey for England 2014
7 Public Health England (2017). Health risks of childhood obesity (available at: www.noo.org.uk/NOO_about_obesity/obesity_and_health/health_risk_child)
8 Childhood Obesity Foundation. What are the Complications of Childhood Obesity? (available at: http://childhoodobesityfoundation.ca/what-is-childhood-obesity/complications-childhood-obesity/)
9 World Health Organisation (2016). Report of the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity (available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204176/1/9789241510066_eng.pdf)
10 World Health Assembly (2010). 63.14 on the Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages to Children (http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA63/A63_R14-en.pdf)
11 The Requirements for School Food Regulations (2014). www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2014/1603/pdfs/uksi_20141603_en.pdf