Nov 18: Issue 139

Page 11 - VITAMINS AND MINERALS: A CONCERN FOR PUBLIC HEALTH- by Emma Berry

  1. British Nutrition Foundation. Nutrient Requirements (2017). Available at: nutrition.org.uk/nutritionscience/nutrients-food-and-ingredients/nutrient-requirements.html. Accessed 4th Sept 2018
  2. NHS Health Scotland. Vitamins and Minerals (2017). Available at: nhsinform.scot/healthy-living/food-and-nutrition/eating-well/vitamins-and-minerals#overview. Accessed 4th Sept 2018
  3. British Nutrition Foundation. Minerals and Trace Elements (2017). Available at: nutrition.org.uk/nutritionscience/nutrients-food-and-ingredients/minerals-and-trace-elements.html?showall=1&limitstart. Accessed 6th Sept 2018
  4. Public Health England. SACN Iron and Health report (2011). Available at: gov.uk/government/publications/sacn-iron-and-health-report. Accessed on 6th Sept 2018
  5. Iron deficiency anaemia (2018). Available at: www.nhs.uk/conditions/iron-deficiency-anaemia/. Accessed 6th Sept 2018
  6. The UK Iodine Group. Promoting the importance of iodine (2018). Available at: ukiodine.org. Accessed 3rd Sept 2018
  7. Bath SC, Button S and Rayman MP. Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake. British Journal of Nutrition. 2012. 107: 935-940.
  8. Organic Milk Suppliers Cooperative. Iodine levels in organic milk showing upward trend (2017). Available at: omsco.co.uk/_clientfiles/pdfs/Iodinelevelsinorganicmilkshowingupwardtrend.pdf. Accessed 6th Sept 2018
  9. Scurvy (2017). Available up: www.nhs.uk/conditions/scurvy/. Accessed 6th Sept 2018
  10. B Vitamins and Folic Acid (2017). Available at: www.nhs.uk/conditions/vitamins-and-minerals/vitamin-b/. Accessed 6th Sept 2018.
  11. Holland and Barrett. Vegan multivitamin mineral tablets (2018). Available at: hollandandbarrett.com/shop/product/holland-barrett-vegan-multivitamin-mineral-tablets-60012166. Accessed 6th Sept 2018
  12. Public Health England (2018). Change4Life Nutrition Campaign. Available at: https://campaignresources.phe.gov.uk/resources/campaigns/66-2018-change4life-nutrition-campaign/overview. Accessed 6th Sept 2018
  13. Lefebvre P, Letois F, Sultan A, Nocca D, Mura T and Galtier F. Nutrient deficiencies in patients with obesity considering bariatric surgery: A cross-sectional study. Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases. 2014. 10(3): 540-546. Available at: sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550728913003274. Accessed 6th Sept 2018
  14. Van Rutte PWJ, Aarts EO, Smulders JF and Nienhuijs SW. Nutrient Deficiencies Before and After Sleeve Gastrectomy. Obesity Surgery. 2014. 24 (10): 1639-1646. Available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11695-014-1225-y. Accessed 6th Sept 2018
  15. Damms-Machado A, Weser G and Bischoff SC. Micronutrient deficiency in obese subjects undergoing low calorie diet. Nutrition Journal. 2012. 11: 34. Available at: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3404899/. Accessed 6th Sept 2018
  16. Vitamin C (2017). Available at: www.nhs.uk/conditions/vitamins-and-minerals/vitamin-c/. Accessed 6th Sept 2018

Page 14 – WEIGHT MANAGEMENT AND SPORTS NUTRITION – by Leona Courtney

  1. Oppliger et al (2006). NCAA Rule Change Improves Weight Loss among National Championship Wrestlers. Med & Sci in Sports and Exercise; 38(5) 963-70
  2. Sundgot-Borgen et al (2013). How to minimise the health risks to athletes who compete in weight-sensitive sport review and position statement on behalf of the Ad Hoc Research Working Group on Body Composition, Health and Performance, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission, Br J Sorts Med, 47: 1012-1022
  3. Gann et al (2015). Weight cycling prevalence, strategies and effects on combat athletes, Strength Cond J, 37(5): 105-11
  4. World Health Organisation. Obesity and Overweight. Fact Sheet, available at: who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight
  5. Rosendahl et al (2009). Dieting and disordered eating in German high school athletes and non-athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 19(5): 731-739
  6. Greenleaf et al (2009). Female collegiate athletes: Prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours. Journal of American College Health, 57(5): 489-495
  7. Artioli et al (2010). Prevalence, magnitude and methods of rapid weight loss among judo competitors. Med & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(3): 436-442
  8. Berkovich et al (2016). Rapid Weight Loss Among Adolescents Participating In Competitive Judo. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 26(3): 276-84
  9. Brito et al (2012). Methods of Body-mass Reduction by Combat Sport Athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 22: 89-97
  10. Kiningham and Gorenflo (2001). Weight loss methods in high school wrestlers. Med & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33: 810-13
  11. Kordi et al (2011). Patterns of weight loss and supplement consumption of male wrestlers in Tehran. Sports Med arthroscopy; Rehabilitation Therapy and Technology, 3, 4
  12. Martinsen et al (2010). Dieting to win or to be thin? A study of dieting and disordered eating among adolescent elite athletes and non-athlete controls. Br J Sports Med, 44: 70-76
  13. Anderson et al (2011). Psychosocial correlates of bulimic symptoms among NCAA division 1 female collegiate gymnasts and swimmers/divers. J Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33(4): 483-505
  14. IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad (2005). Available at: olympic.org/documents
  15. Areta et al (2002). Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis. J Physiol, 519 (pt 9) 2319-31
  16. Loucks AB (2004). Energy balance and body composition in sports and exercise. J Sports Med, 47: 1012-22
  17. Gibbs et al (2013). Prevalence of individual and combined components of the female athlete triad. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 45(5): 985-996
  18. Nichols et al (2006). Prevalence of the female athlete triad syndrome among high school athletes. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 160(2): 137-142
  19. Nattiv et al (2007) American College of Sports Medicine. American College of Sports Medicine position stand: the female athlete triad, Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39(10): 1867-1882
  20. Ferrand and Brunet, (2004). Perfectionism and risk for disordered eating among young French male cyclists of high performance. Percept Mot Skills, 99(3 Pt 1): 959-67
  21. Sundgot-Borgen and Torstveit (2010). Aspects of disordered eating continuum in elite high-intensity sports. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 20(Suppl 2): 112-21
  22. Imat et al (2002). Effect of weight loss on T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell function in elite athletes. Med & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(2), 3245-50
  23. Prouteau et al (2006). Bone density in elite judoists and effects of weight cycling on bone metabolic balance. Med & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(4) 696-700
  24. Saarni et al (2006). Weight cycling in of athletes and subsequent weight gain in middle age. Int J Obese, 30(11): 1639-44
  25. Manore et al (2009). Sport Nutrition for health and performance. 2nd ed, Champaign: Human Kinetics
  26. Leydon and Wall (2002). New Zealand jockeys’ dietary habits and their potential impact on health. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 12: 220-37
  27. Bigard et al (2001) Effects of dehydration and rehydration on EMG changes during fatiguing contractions. Med & Sci Sports Exerc, 33: 1694-1700
  28. American Dietetic Association et al (2009). Position stand nutrition and athletic performance. Med & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41:9-12
  29. Donnelly et al (2009). American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 41: 459-71
  30. Pasiakos et al (2012). Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomised controlled trial. FASEB J, 27: 3837-47
  31. Rolls et al (2006). Reductions in portion size and energy density of foods are additive and lead to sustained decreases in energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr, 83:11-17
  32. Rolls BJ et al (2009). The relationship between dietary energy density and energy intake. Physiol Behav, 97: 609-15
  33. Ello-Martin et al (2005). The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management. Am J Clin Nutr, 82: 236S-41S
  34. Mettler et al (2010) Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass during weight loss in athletes. Med & Sci Sports Exerc, 42(2): 326-37
  35. Scott et al (1994). Acute weight gain in collegiate wrestlers following a tournament weigh-in. Med & Sci Sports Exerc, 26: 1181-85
  36. Scott et al. Body weight changes at the national tournaments - the impact of rules governing wrestling weight management. Med & Sci Sports Exerc, 32(5): S131
  37. Ransone and Hughes (2004). Body-weight fluctuations in collegiate wrestlers: implications of the national Collegiate Athletic Association weight certification program. J Ath Train, 39:162-165
  38. Rumball et al (2005). Use of the preparticipation physical examination form to screen for the female athlete triad in Canadian interuniversity sport universities. Clin J Sport Med, 15: 320-5
  39. Mencias et al (2012). Female athlete triad screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes: is the preparticipation evaluation form effective? Clin J Sport Med, 22: 122-5

 

Page 18 - TODDLER NUTRITION- by Maeve Hanan RD

  1. Huffman and Schofield (2011). Consequences of malnutrition in early life and strategies to improve maternal and child diets through targeted fortified products [accessed August 2018 via: http://fsnnetwork.org/sites/default/files/consequencs_of_maternal_and_child_nutritution.pdf]
  2. Manual of Dietetic Practice. Edited by Joan Gandy in conjunction with The British Dietetic Association (5th Edition, 2014)
  3. Results of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme for 2014 to 2015 and 2015 to 2016 [accessed August 2018 via gov.uk/government/statistics/ndns-results-from-years-7-and-8-combined]
  4. Department of Health. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. London. HMSO, 1991
  5. Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (2015). Nutritional Requirements (6th Edition)
  6. SACN (2016). Vitamin D and Health [accessed August 2018 via: gov.uk/government/publications/sacn-vitamin-d-and-health-report]
  7. SACN (2015). Carbohydrates and Health [accessed August 2018 via: gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/445503/SACN_Carbohydrates_and_Health.pdf]
  8. Manual of Dietetic Practice. Edited by Joan Gandy in conjunction with The British Dietetic Association (5th Edition, 2014). Table A.2.1 p 923
  9. NIH (2012). Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents [accessed August 2018 via: nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/peds_guidelines_sum.pdf]
  10. SACN (2017). Draft Feeding in the First Year of Life Report [accessed August 2018 via: gov.uk/government/publications/feeding-in-the-first-year-of-life-sacn-report]
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  12. Pearce (2014). Iodine deficiency in children [accessed August: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25231449]
  13. National Dental Epidemiology Programme for England: oral health survey of five-year-old children 2015
  14. NHS Choices (2016). What to Feed Young Children [available August 2018 via: nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/understanding-food-groups/]
  15. BDA Food Fact Sheet ‘Iodine’ [accessed August 2018 via: bda.uk.com/foodfacts/Iodine.pdf]
  16. Gibson and Sidnell (2014). Nutrient adequacy and imbalance among young children aged 1-3 years in the UK [available August 2018 via: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nbu.12087]
  17. BNF (2014). 5532-a-day resource [available August 2018 via: nutrition.org.uk/healthyliving/toddlers/5532aday.html]
  18. WHO Website. Breastfeeding [available August 2018 via: who.int/nutrition/topics/exclusive_breastfeeding/en/]
  19. NCT (2010). Key Baby Feeding Statistics from the 2005 UK Infant Feeding Survey [available August 2018 via: nct.org.uk/sites/default/files/KeyBabyFeedingStatistics.pdf]
  20. WHO Website. Continued breastfeeding for healthy growth and development of children [available August 2018 via: who.int/elena/titles/continued_breastfeeding/en/]
  21. Agarwal and Fulgoni (2016). Assessment of the Infant and Toddler Nutrition Status in the US: A Recent Literature Review
  22. Dewey (2001). Nutrition, growth and complementary feeding of the breastfed infant [available August 2018 via: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11236735]
  23. Victora et al (2016). Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms and lifelong effect [available August 2018 via: thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(15)01024-7/abstract]
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  25. NHS Choices (2018). Vitamins for Children [accessed August 2018 via: nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/vitamins-for-children/]
  26. NHS Choices (2015). Drinks and cups for babies and toddlers [accessed August 2018 via: (nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/drinks-and-cups-children/)
  27. Ziegler (2011). Consumption of cow's milk as a cause of iron deficiency in infants and toddlers [accessed August 2018 via: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22043881]
  28. GOSH Website. Fussy eaters [accessed August 2018 via: gosh.nhs.uk/medical-information/general-health-advice/food-and-diet/fussy-eaters]

Page 25 - HEALTHY MEAL PLANNING FOR TODDLERS - FROM THE INFANT AND TODDLER FORUM

  1. Russell CG, Haszard JJ, Taylor RW, Heath AM, Taylor B, Campbell KJ. Parental feeding practices associated with children's eating and weight: What are parents of toddlers and preschool children doing? Appetite. 2018; 128:120-8
  2. Goldthorpe J, Ali N, Calam R. Providing healthy diets for young children: the experience of parents in a UK inner city. International journal of qualitative studies on health and well-being. 2018; 13(1): 1490623
  3. Forum IaT. ITF Portion size survey:#rethinktoddlerportionsizes. 2016
  4. Syrad H, Llewellyn CH, Johnson L, Boniface D, Jebb SA, van Jaarsveld CH et al. Meal size is a critical driver of weight gain in early childhood. Scientific reports. 2016; 6:28368
  5. England N. National Child Measurement Programme - England. 2014 - 15
  6. Dev DA, Speirs KE, Williams NA, Ramsay S, McBride BA, Hatton-Bowers H. Providers perspectives on self-regulation impact their use of responsive feeding practices in child care. Appetite. 2017; 118:66-74
  7. Schwartz S, Benuck I. Strategies and suggestions for a healthy toddler diet. Paediatric annals. 2013; 42(9): 181-3
  8. Verhage CL, Gillebaart M, van der Veek SMC, Vereijken C. The relation between family meals and health of infants and toddlers: A review. Appetite. 2018; 127:97-109
  9. Briefel RR, Deming DM, Reidy KC. Parents' Perceptions and Adherence to Children's Diet and Activity Recommendations: the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. Preventing chronic disease. 2015; 12:E159
  10. Owen LH, Kennedy OB, Hill C, Houston-Price C. Peas, please! Food familiarisation through picture books helps parents introduce vegetables into preschoolers' diets. Appetite. 2018; 128:32-43
  11. infantandtoddlerforum.org/toddlers-to-preschool/common-nutritional-problems-in-toddlers/vitamin-d-deficiency

Page 27 - NUTRITIONAL ADVICE FOR TEENAGERS – by Maeve Hanan

  1. Manual of Dietetic Practice. Edited by Joan Gandy in conjunction with The British Dietetic Association (5th Edition, 2014)
  2. British Nutrition Foundation (2015). Teenagers. Accessed August 2018 via: nutrition.org.uk/nutritionscience/life/teenagers.html?showall=1
  3. Department of Health. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. London. HMSO, 1991
  4. Results of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme for 2014 to 2015 and 2015 to 2016. Accessed August 2018 via: gov.uk/government/statistics/ndns-results-from-years-7-and-8-combined
  5. SACN (2015). Carbohydrates and Health. Accessed August 2018 via: gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/445503/SACN_Carbohydrates_and_Health.pdf
  6. Child Dental Health Survey 2013, England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Accessed August 2018 via: https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/children-s-dental-health-survey/child-dental-health-survey-2013-england-wales-and-northern-ireland
  7. NICE (2014). Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction, including lipid modification. Accessed August 2018 via: nice.org.uk/guidance/cg181/chapter/1-recommendations#lipid-modification-therapy-for-the-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-cvd-2
  8. SACN (2016). Vitamin D and Health. Accessed August 2018 via: gov.uk/government/publications/sacn-vitamin-d-and-health-report
  9. PHE publishes new advice on vitamin D. Accessed August 2018 via: gov.uk/government/news/phe-publishes-new-advice-on-vitamin-d
  10. BDA Food Fact Sheet ‘Iodine’. Accessed August 2018 via: bda.uk.com/foodfacts/Iodine.pdf
  11. BDA Food Fact Sheet ‘Folic Acid’. Accessed August 2018 via: bda.uk.com/foodfacts/FolicAcid.pdf
  12. Results of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme for 2008-2009 to 2011-2012. Accessed August 2018 via: www.gov.uk/government/statistics/national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-results-from-years-1-to-4-combined-of-the-rolling-programme-for-2008-and-2009-to-2011-and-2012
  13. Know the risks of drinking alcohol underage. Accessed August 2018 via: www.drinkaware.co.uk/advice/underage-drinking/know-the-risks-of-drinking-alcohol-underage/
  14. Ipsos MORI (2015). Drinkaware Monitor 2014: Young people’s and their parents’ drinking behaviour and attitudes in the UK. Accessed August 2018 via: drinkaware.co.uk/media/1469/drinkaware_monitor_2014_young_people_reportcompressed__1_.pdf
  15. Sullivan and Damani. Vegetarianism and eating disorders - partners in crime? Accessed August 2018 via: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/1099-0968(200008)8:4%3C263::AID-ERV367%3E3.0.CO;2-2
  16. Rogers et al. (2015). Longitudinal relationships among internalisation of the media ideal, peer social comparison, and body dissatisfaction: Implications for the tripartite influence model. Accessed August 2016 via: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25751099
  17. Tiggemann and Slater (2016). Facebook and body image concern in adolescent girls: A prospective study. Accessed August 2018 via: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/eat.2264

 

Page 31 - BOLUS FEEDING: AN OVERVIEW- Alice Fletcher RD

  1. Smith T, Micklewright A, Hirst A, Stratton RJ, Baxter J. Annual BANS Report 2011. Artificial Nutrition Support in the UK 2000–2010. BAPEN
  2. Simons R, White S, Topen S et al. A survey of bolus feeding practices in the UK home enteral tube feeding population. BAPEN 2016
  3. Ciocon J et al (1992). Pump-assisted enteral nutrition can prevent aspiration in bedridden percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy patients. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition; 28: 180-183
  4. Bowling T et al (2008). The effects of bolus and continuous nasogastric feeding on gastro oesophageal reflux and gastric emptying in healthy volunteers: A randomised three-way crossover pilot study. Clinical Nutrition; 27: 608-613
  5. West D, Burd N, Coffey V, Baker S, Burke L, Hawley J, Moore D, Stellingwerff T and Phillips S (2011). Rapid aminoacidemia enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis and anabolic intramuscular signaling responses after resistance exercise. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94(3), pp 795-803
  6. Lee J, Kwok T, Chui P, Ko F, Lo W and Kam W et al (2010). Can continuous pump feeding reduce the incidence of pneumonia in nasogastric tube-fed patients? A randomised controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition, 29(4), 453-458. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2009.10.003

Page 37 - TACKLING THE WIDER ASPECTS OF MALNUTRITION IN THE ELDERLY - A CASE STUDY- IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE BDA’S OLDER PEOPLE SPECIALIST GROUP

  1. Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, BAPEN (2011). bapen.org.uk/pdfs/must/must_full.pdf Bapen 2009
  2. Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, BAPEN (2011). bapen.org.uk/pdfs/reports/advisory_group_report.pdf
  3. Weekes E, Elia M. Resting energy expenditure and body composition following cerebro-vascular accident. Clin Nutr; 1992; 11: 18-22
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Page 40 - UPDATE ON IDDSI FROM THE BSNA

  1. National Patient Safety Agency, Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists, British Dietetic Association, National Nurses Nutrition Group, Hospital caterers Association (2011) Dysphagia Diet Food Texture Descriptors. Available at: www.hospitalcaterers.org/media/1160/dysphagia-descriptors.pdf
  2. British Dietetic Association and Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists. 2002. National Descriptors for Texture Modification in Adults. Available at: www.findusfoodservices.se/content/SE/Special%20Foods/Fakta%20&%20forskning/Konsistensanpassad%20mat/TMF_National_descriptors_UK.pd

Page 41 - DIABETES AND CARBOHYDRATES: AN OVERVIEW OF CURRENT DISCUSSIONS by Alice Fletcher

  1. Seidelmann S, Claggett B, Cheng S, Henglin M, Shah A, Steffen L, Folsom A, Rimm E, Willett W and Solomon S (2018). Dietary CHO intake and mortality: a prospective cohort study and meta-analysis. The Lancet Public Health, 3(9), pp e419-e428
  2. Results of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme for 2014 to 2015 and 2015 to 2016 [accessed August 2018 via: gov.uk/government/statistics/ndns-results-from-years-7-and-8-combined
  3. Saslow L, Kim S, Daubenmier J, Moskowitz J, Phinney S, Goldman V, Murphy E, Cox R, Moran P and Hecht F (2014). A Randomised Pilot Trial of a Moderate CHO Diet Compared to a Very Low CHO Diet in Overweight or Obese Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus or Prediabetes. PLoS ONE, 9(4), p.e91027
  4. http://live.smashthefat.com/category/self-experiment-conclusions/
  5. youtube.com/watch?reload=9&v=F1afyKN18S0&feature=youtu.be
  6. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention: National Center for Health Statistics (2017). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services
  7. Lammert O, Grunnet N, Faber P, Bjørnsbo K, Dich J, Larsen L, Quistorff B (2000). Effects of isoenergetic overfeeding of either CHO or fat in young men. British Journal of Nutrition, 84(2), 233-245
  8. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than CHO Restriction in People with Obesity. (2015, August 13). Retrieved from sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550413115003502. British Journal of Nutrition, 84(2), 233-245
  9. Dietary and Policy Priorities for Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes and Obesity: A Comprehensive Review. D Mozaffarian, Circulation (2016) Jan 12; 133(2): 187-225. doi: 10.1161. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2674617
  10. Swinburn B, Sacks G, Ravussin E. Increased food energy supply is more than sufficient to explain the US epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009; 90(6): 1453-1456
  11. National Obesity Forum. Eat fat, cut the carbs and avoid snacking to reverse obesity and Type 2 diabetes. [Nationalobesityforum.org.uk (2018).] Available at: www.nationalobesityforum.org.uk/index.php/136-news_/746-“eat-fat,-cut-the-carbs-and-avoid-snacking-to-reverse-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-”.html [accessed 1st Sept 2018
  12. https://phcuk.org/about/
  13. Unwin D and Unwin J (2014). Low carbohydrate diet to achieve weight loss and improve HbA1cin Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes: Experience from one general practice. Practical Diabetes, 31(2), 76-79. doi:10.1002/pdi.1835
  14. diabetes.org.uk/resources-s3/2017-09/low-carb-diets-position-statement-May-2017.pdf
  15. P Dyson, D Twenefour, C Breen, A Duncan, E Elvin, L Goff, A Hill, P Kalsi, N Marsland, P McArdle, D Mellor, L Oliver, K Watson. Diabetes UK. Evidenceā€based Nutrition Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/dme.13603
  16. Gardner CD et al. Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-CHO Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association with Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion: The DIETFITS Randomised Clinical Trial. JAMA (2018)