Dec/Jan: Issue 150

1 EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) (2014). Scientific Opinion on the essential composition of infant and follow-on formulae. EFSA Journal; 12(7): 3760
2 Lien EL, Richard C, Hoffman DR (2018). DHA and ARA addition to infant formula: Current status and future research directions. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids; 128: 26-40
3 Haggarty P et al (1997). Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid transport across the perfused human placenta. Placenta; 18(8): 635-642
4 Lauritzen L et al (2016). DHA Effects in Brain Development and Function. Nutrients; 8(1): 6

Page 9 - WEANING PRETERM BABIES by Sarah Almond Bushell
1 C King and Tavener K. Chapter 6: Preterm Infants’ in Clinical Paediatric Dietetics. V Shaw, Editor. 2015. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. p 83-103
2 Jarmy R, Ellis G and Patel M (2017). Weaning your preterm baby. 9th Edition [online] available at [accessed: 25/07/2019]
3 (accessed 20/09/2019)
4 SACN (2018). Feeding in the First year of Life
5 Wright CM, Cameron K, Tsiaka M and Parkinson KN (2011). Is baby‐led weaning feasible? When do babies first reach out for and eat finger foods? Maternal & Child Nutrition, 7: 27-33
6 C King (2009). An evidence-based guide to weaning preterm infants. Paediatrics and Child Health, 2009. Volume 19; No 9; p 405-414
7 Toomey K and Ross E (2018). SOS Advanced Workshop: Feeding the 6-16-Month-Old Child. Presented in London, England. www.sosapproach/sosadvanced
8 S Nicklaus. The Role of Dietary Experience in the Development of Eating Behaviour during the First Years of Life. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2017. Vol 70; No 3; p 241-245
9 G Harris. Development of taste and food preferences in children. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care, 2008. Volume 11; No 3; p 315-319
10 Coulthard H, Harris G, Emmett P. Delayed introduction of lumpy foods to children during the complementary feeding period affects child's food acceptance and feeding at 7 years of age. Matern Child Nutr. 2009; 5: 75-85
11 Leann Lipps Birch, Linda McPhee, BC Shoba, Edna Pirok, Lois Steinberg. What kind of exposure reduces children's food neophobia? Looking vs tasting. Appetite, Volume 9, Issue 3, 1987, 171-178, ISSN 0195-6663
12 Siegel DJ and Hartzell M. Parenting from the Inside Out: How a Deeper Self-Understanding Can Help You Raise Children Who Thrive. 2004. New York, Tarcher/Penguin
13 Kurth E, Kennedy H et al. Responding to a crying infant – you do not learn it overnight: A phenominalogocal study. Midwifery 30 (6); 2014; 742-749
14 Engle PL, Bentley M, Pelto G. The role of care in nutrition programmes: current research and a research agenda. Proc Nutr Soc. 2000; 59: 25-35
15 Sullivan SA1, Birch LL. Infant dietary experience and acceptance of solid foods. Pediatrics. 1994. Feb; 93(2): 271-7
16 Catherine A Forestell, Julie A Mennella. Early Determinants of Fruit and Vegetable Acceptance. Pediatrics. Dec 2007; 120 (6) 1247-1254; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-0858
17 Addessi E, Galloway AT, Visalberghi E, Birch LL. Specific social influences on the acceptance of novel foods in 2-5-year-old children. Appetite. 2005; Dec; 45(3): 264-71. Epub 2005 Oct 18

1 Weaver CM, Gordon CM, Janz KF et al. The National Osteoporosis Foundation’s position statement on peak bone mass development and lifestyle factors: a systematic review and implementation recommendations. Osteoporos Int (2016) 27: 1281. Accessed at
2 PHE (2019). Hospital tooth extractions of 0 to 19-year-olds. Accessed via
3 Taylor CM et al. Picky/fussy eating in children: Review of definitions, assessment, prevalence and dietary intakes. Appetite. 2015 Dec; 95: 349-59. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2015.07.026. Epub 2015 Jul 29. Accessed at

Page 19 - PLANT-BASED DIETS by Ruth James
1 Tong YN, Appleby PN, Bradbury PN, Perez- Cornago, Travis RC, Clarke R, Key TJ. Risks of ischaemic heart disease and stroke in meat eaters and vegetarians over 18 years of follow up: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study. BMJ (2019): 366:14897
2 Godfray HCJ, Aveyard P, Garnett T et al (2018). Meat consumption, health and the environment. Science; 361(6399)
3 Sabate J, Wien M (2010). Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 91(5) 1525S-1529S
4 Willett W, Rockström J, Loken B, Springmann M, Lang T, Vermeulen S, Garnett T, Tilman D, DeClerck F, Wood A et al. Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT-Lancet Commission on Healthy Diets from Sustainable Food Systems. (2019) Lancet; 393: 447-492
5 Appleby PN, Key Tj (2015). The long-term health of vegetarians and vegans. Proc Nutr Soc. 75: 287-293
6 Lacour C et al (2018). Environmental Impacts of Plant-Based Diets: How Does Organic Food Consumption Contribute to Environmental Sustainability? Nutr. 09 February
7 Davey GK, Spencer EA, Appleby PN et al (2003). EPIC-Oxford lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33,883 meat eaters and 31,546 non-meat eaters in the UK. Public Health Nutr: 6 259-268
8 Sobeiecki JG et al (2016). High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – Oxford study. Nutr Res 36(5): 464-477
9 Letsiou S et al (2010). Dietary habits of Greek adults and serum total selenium concentration: the ATTICA study. Eur J Nutr. 49 (8): 465-472
10 Ipsos Mori surveys, commissioned by The Vegan Society, 2016 and 2019. Vegan Society (UK)

1 National Patient Safety Agency (2011). Patient safety Alert 2011/PSA002. Reducing the harm cause by misplaced nasogastric feeding tubes in adults, children and infants. NPSA London. Accessed online
2 National Institute of Clinical Excellence (2006). Nutrition Support for Adults. Oral nutrition support, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition. Clinical Guideline 32, NICE, London
3 Stroud M, Duncan H, Nightingale J (2003). Guidelines for enteral feeding in adult hospital patients. Gut 52, 1-12
4 National Nurses Nutrition Group (NNNG) (2016). Good practice guideline: Safe Insertion and Ongoing Care of Nasogastric (NG) Feeding Tubes in Adults.
5 NHS England Never Events and Policy Framework 2015.
6 Metheny N, Wehrle, M, Wiersema L et al (1998). Testing feeding tube placement: auscultation vs pH method. The American Journal of Nursing 98: 37-43
7 Turgay A and Khorshid L (2010). Effectiveness of the auscultatory and pH methods in predicting feeding tube placement. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19: 1553-1559
8 Jones F, Jukes A, Galliford S, Mpastone M, Pinch N, Vaughan-Roberts R, Tregidon C, Jones A, Hall J (2014). Prudent checking Procedure for Nasogastric Tubes (Poster). Cardiff and Vale University Health Board
9 National Institute for Health Research (NIHR 2016). Simple bedside check for nasogastric tube positioning is cost effective and prevents deaths
10 Metheny NA, Clouse RE, Clark JM, Reed L, Wehrle MA, Wiersema L (1994). Effectiveness of pH measurements in predicting feeding tube placement: an update. Nutrition in Clinical Practice; 9 (5): 185-90
11 Fernandez R, Chau J, Thompson D et al (2010). Accuracy of biochemical markers for predicting nasogastric tube placement in adults; a systematic review of diagnostic studies. International Journal of Nursing studies, 47: 1037-1046
12 Fan EMP, Bee Tan S, Yuh Ang S (2017). Nasogastric tube placement confirmation: where we are and where we should be heading. Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare, Vol 26 (3) 189-195.
13 Seder CW, Janczy R. (2008-2009). The routine bridling of nasojejunal tubes is safe and effective method of reducing dislodgement in intensive care unit. NCP Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 23(6) 651-654
14 Williams J (2005). Using an alternative fixing device for nasogastric tubes. Nursing Times, Vol 101, Issue 35, 26.
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Page 27 – CONSTIPATION by Rebecca Gasche
1 Moezi P, Salehi A, Molavi H, Poustchi H, Gandomkar A, Imanieh M and Malekzadeh R (2018). Prevalence of Chronic Constipation and Its Associated Factors in Pars Cohort Study: A Study of 9000 Adults in Southern Iran. Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases, 10(2), p 75-83
2 Lomer M and Stuart A (2014). Advanced nutrition and dietetics in gastroenterology. Chichester, England: Wiley Blackwell
3 Lacy B, Mearin F, Chang L, Chey W, Lembo A, Simren M and Spiller R (2016). Bowel Disorders. Gastroenterology, 150(6), p 1393-1407.e5
4 McCallum I, Ong S and Mercer-Jones M (2009). Chronic constipation in adults. BMJ, 338 (Mar 20 1), p b831-b831
5 Andrews C and Storr M (2011). The pathophysiology of chronic constipation. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, 25 (suppl b), p16B-21B
6 Arnaudm MJ. Mild dehydration: a risk factor for constipation? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 57: S88-S95
7 Mugie SM, Benninga MA, di Lorenzo C. Epidemiology of constipation in children and adults; a systemic review. Best Practice and Research in Clinic Gastroenterology 2011; 25(1): 3-18
8 Rao SSC, Go JT. Update on management of constipation in the elderly. Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2010; 5: 163-171
9 (2018). Online. Available at: [Accessed 11 Apr 2018]
10 SACN (2019). [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Sept 2019]
11 British Nutrition Foundation (2019). Online. Available at: [Accessed 25 Sept 2019]
12 Rush E, Patel M, Plank L and Ferguson L (2002). Kiwifruit promotes laxation in the elderly. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 11(2), p 164-168
13 Attaluri A, Donahoe R, Valestin J, Brown K and Rao S (2011). Randomised clinical trial: dried plums (prunes) vs. psyllium for constipation. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 33(7), p 822-828
14 British Dietetic Association (2019). Online. Available at: [Accessed 23 Sept 2019] 
15 Koebnick C, Wagner I, Leitzmann P, Stern U and Zunft H (2003). Probiotic Beverage Containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota Improves Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Chronic Constipation. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, 17(11), p 655-659
16 Möllenbrink M, Bruckschen E (1994).Treatment of chronic constipation with physiologic Escherichia coli bacteria. Results of a clinical study of the effectiveness and tolerance of microbiological therapy with the E. coli Nissle 1917 strain (Mutaflor)]. Available from
17 Yang YX, He M, Hu G, Wei J, Pages P, Yang XH, Bourdu-Naturel S (2008). Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010 on Chinese constipated women. Available from
18 Séverine Meance, Chantal Cayuela, Aldo Raimondi, Pietro Turchet, Claudio Lucas and Jean-Michel Antoine (2003). Recent Advances in the Use of Functional Foods: Effects of the Commercial Fermented Milk with Bifidobacterium Animalis Strain DN-173 010 and Yoghurt Strains on Gut Transit Time in the Elderly. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease, 15:1, 15-22, DOI: 10.1080/08910600310015565
19 NICE (2019). Constipation. Available from!scenario

Page 32 POPULAR LIQUID DIETS by Maeve Hanan
1 Obert et al (2017). Popular Weight Loss Strategies: a Review of Four Weight Loss Techniques. Accessed June 2019 via:
2 Horne et al (2013). Randomised cross-over trial of short-term water-only fasting: metabolic and cardiovascular consequences. Accessed June 2019 via:
3 Chakravarthy and Booth (1985). Eating, exercise and ‘thrifty’ genotypes: connecting the dots toward an evolutionary understanding of modern chronic diseases. Accessed June 2019 via:
4 Rizza et al (2014). What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity? Accessed June 2019 via:
5 Alirezaei et al (2010). Short-term fasting induces profound neuronal autophagy. Accessed June 2019 via:
6 Finnell et al (2018). Is fasting safe? A chart review of adverse events during medically supervised, water-only fasting. Accessed June 2019 via:
7 Asmaa S Abdelhamid, Tracey J Brown, Julii S Brainard, Priti Biswas et al (2018). Omega‐3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Accessed June 2019 via:
8 Abdelhamid et al (2018). Omega‐3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Accessed June 2019 via:
9 Franz et al (2007). Weight-loss outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight-loss clinical trials with a minimum one-year follow-up. Accessed June 2019 via:
10 Lean et al (2018). Primary care-led weight management for remission of Type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial. Accessed June 2019 via:
11 Muller et al (2016). Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans. Accessed June 2019 via:
12 IOC (2018). IOC consensus statement on relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S): 2018 update. Accessed June 2019 via:
13 Heymsfield et al (2003). Weight management using a meal replacement strategy: meta and pooling analysis from six studies. Accessed June 2019 via:
14 Impact of Soylent Consumption on Human Microbiome Composition. Accessed June 2019 via:
15 Hsu et al (2017). Impact of Soylent Consumption on Human Microbiome Composition” [accessed June 2019 via:
16 Alice Fletcher (2018). Huel: Is this the future of food? NHD Issue 137 (August/September 2018 edition) 


Page 41 – Is Organic the healthier option by Maeve Hannan
1 International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement. Definition of organic agriculture. Accessed November 2018 via:
2 European Commission. EU Law on Organic Production: An Overview. Accessed November 2018 via:
3 The Soil Association (2019). The Organic Market Report.
4 McGee B (2008). Survey of pesticide use in Ontario. Guelph (ON): Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Accessed November 2018 via:
5 European Commission (2005). Ban on antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed enters into effect. Accessed November 2018 via:
6 European Food Safety Authority (2007). EFSA concludes review of new scientific data on potential risks to human health from certain hormone residues in beef. Accessed November 2018 via:]
7 Smith-Spangler et al (2012). Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives? A systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2012; 157: 348-366. Accessed November 2018 via:
8 Dangour et al (2009). Nutritional quality of organic foods: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. Accessed November 2018 via:
9 Średnicka-Tober et al (2016). Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses. Br J Nutr. 115(6): 1043-1060
10 Średnicka-Tober et al (2016). Composition differences between organic and conventional meat: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr; 115(6): 994-1011
11 Golden Rice Humanitarian Board. Golden Rice Project. Accessed November 2018 via:]
12 European Food Safety Authority (2011). The 2009 European Union report on pesticide residues in food. Accessed November 2018 via:
13 Larsson et al (2018). Refined assessment and perspectives on the cumulative risk resulting from the dietary exposure to pesticide residues in the Danish population. Accessed November 2018 via:
14 Mie et al (2017). Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture: a comprehensive review. Accessed November 2018 via:
15 Teixeira et al (2016). Organic versus conventional food: A comparison regarding food safety. Accessed November 2018 via:
16 Lidder and Webb (2013). Vascular effects of dietary nitrate (as found in green leafy vegetables and beetroot) via the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; 75(3): 677-696
17 Bryan and Loscalzo (2011). Looking Forward, in Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease. Humana Press; 279-291
18 Kesse-Guyot E et al (2013). Profiles of organic food consumers in a large sample of French adults: results from the Nutrinet-Sante cohort study. PLoS One. 2013; 8 (10): e76998)
19 Food and Agricultural Organisation of the UN. Organic Agriculture. Accessed November 2018 via:
20 Dettmann and Dimitri (2009). Who's Buying Organic Vegetables? Demographic Characteristics of US Consumers. Journal of Food Products Marketing; 16(1): 79-91
21 United States Department of Agriculture. SDA-ERS, Organic prices 2016. Accessed November 2018 via:
22 Angood et al (2008). A comparison of organic and conventionally-produce lamb purchased from three major UK supermarkets: price, eating quality and fatty acid composition. Meat Sci: 176-84. Accessed November 2018 via:
23 Bourn and Prescott (2002). A comparison of the nutritional value, sensory qualities and food safety of organically and conventionally produced foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr; 42(1): 1-34. Accessed November 2018 via:
24 Fillion et al (2002). Does organic food taste better? A claim substantiation approach. Accessed November 2018 via: